General English: Учебное пособие
Пособие представляет собой базовый курс английского языка для студентов неязыковых вузов. Материал пособия подобран в соответствии с ГОС для технических специальностей вузов и рабочими программами и нацелен на развитие навыков говорения, чтения аутентичных текстов по социально-бытовой тематике, письма и восприятия иноязычной речи на слух. Предназначено как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.
• А как ты выбрал свою будущую специальность? Ты последовал совету родителей или принял самостоятельное решение? • Мои родители рекомендовали мне выбрать специальность горного инженера (менеджера, бухгалтера, металлурга), так как сейчас эта специальность востребована. Я прислушался к их мнению, так как у них больше жизненного опыта. • Хватает ли тебе стипендии, ты не подрабатываешь в свободное время? • Моя стипендия очень маленькая, ее хватает только на оплату карт мобильного телефона. Я подрабатываю – разношу газеты, так как не хочу просить у родителей на свои карманные расходы (кино, развлечения). • Дети и родители должны доверять друг другу? • Несомненно. Лексика по теме frequent To respect conformity To follow one’s trivial To disturb assumption advice conventional To suspect value sinful To bequeath experience average To earn heritage To threaten violence comment UNIT 2 PROBLEMS OF TODAY’S FAMILY 2.1 Ответьте на вопросы. • Do you know what the approximate number of members is in modern Russian and American family? • What types of family exist in our society? • Have you ever thought about your future family? • Why do people need a family? 181 2.2 Прочтите текст THE FAMILY. найдите соответствия русских и английских слов и выражений. 1. To take place a. Развод 2. To stay at home b. Пара 3. To work outside the house c. Происходить, случаться 4. A couple d. Заработная плата 5. Salary, wage e. Работать вне дома 6. Divorce f. Оставаться дома 7. To sanction g. Утвердить, одобрить 2.3 Прочтите текст и сравните информацию из текста с ситуацией в нашей стране. THE FAMILY The American family has changed greatly in the last 20 or 30 years. Many of these changes are similar to the changes taking place in other countries. Young people are waiting longer before getting married. Women are also waiting longer to have children. It’s not usual today for a woman to have the first child in her mid-thirties. And families are having fewer children. The typical families have one or two children. In the traditional family, the wife stayed at home with the children while the husband earned money. Now 60 per cent of all married women work outside the home. So a majority of couples have two wage-earners. One reason for this change is that want and expected to have careers. Another reason is economics. With rising prices, many families cannot survive on one person’s salary. The United States has a high divorce rate: approximately 1 in every 2 marriages ends in divorce. One result of this high divorce rate is the many American children live in single-parent families. Although some women wait until their thirties to have their first child, other women become mothers while they are still teenagers. Many of these teenaged mothers are not married. Many are also poor. Poverty among children in homes headed by single mothers has become a serious problem in the United States. Often people who are divorced get married again. This has led to a new kid of family ― the “reconstituted family”, in which there are children from previous marriages as well as from the present marriage. 182 The newest category of family, called domestic partnership, has been sanctioned by more than 25 cities in the USA. Unmarried couples over 18 years of age receive a paper similar to a marriage license. To divorce from the partnership couples simply have to advise the city that they no longer live together. In the past, it was common for three generations ― grandparents, parents, and children ― to live together. Now older people live in their own. They generally stay in contact with their children but might live in a different part of the country. People are also living together ― often for 20 years after they’ve retired from their job. Modern American culture tends to value youth rather than age. All of this create an interesting challenge for older people ― and for the country, since by the year 2020, one in every 6 Americans will be over the age of 65. Is the American family in trouble? People point to the divorce rate, to the fact that working mothers might have less time with their children, and to the “generation gap”, or the problems that parents and children sometimes have no understanding each other. Experts say, however, that the family is as strong as ever. Family is still at the center of most people’s lives. 2.4 Сравните типы семьи, упомянутые в тексте. Traditional Reconstituted Domestic Three- family family partnership generations family How many children Wage- earner / house keeper Age to get married Place of living 2.5 Ответьте на вопросы. 1. Is the family problem relevant in Russia or not? 2. What are the roles of woman and man in the traditional family? 3. Is one-member family a real family? Why? 183 4. What are the consequences of a high divorce rate in the USA? 5. Should parents live with their children or not? 6. When women should have a baby: at the age of nineteen or middle- thirty? 7. Does divorce bring something bad for kids? Why? 2.6 Какой тип семьи характерен для России? о какой семье мечтаете вы? Расскажите о своей будущей семье. используйте следующую таблицу. My family Shall Consist of 2/3/5 members. I will Work and earn money/ earn our living/ My wife Stay at home and take care about our children/ My husband keep the house Work outside the house/ have a business of his/ her Our parents own/ run a big company Our in - laws Live with us in a big detached house/ live separately/ visit us on weekends and special Our children occasions We Go to the local school/ be brought up by highly educated teachers/ get home instructions/ study at famous universities like Harvard or Oxbridge Be happy and wealthy/ live a long life together/ live in different houses an visit each other…. 2.7 Прочтите следующие диалоги и выскажитесь о ситуации. 1. Mother is talking to her son Pete M: Come here, Pete! I’d like you to do the washing-up. P: I don’t think that’s a good idea. In fact, I’m going to the disco. M: Why an earth can’t you stay at home just for once? P: Why should I stay when everyone else is going? M: Who is everyone else? P: Oh, come on, Mum! Do you have to know everything? M: I don’t want to know everything. I just want to know who you are going out with? P: Susan, okay? M: Do I know Susan? P: She is just a friend, okay? M: Well, you can go as long as you are home at eleven! P: How can I possibly be home at eleven if the disco closes at midnight? 184 2. Jerry is talking to his wife Mary. J: Why don’t you go to bed, dear? Your sitting up won’t bring her back any earlier. M: How can I possibly sleep when I’m worried sick? Our daughter is out! J: Do you know who’s she gone with? M: That is exactly the point. They’re such an odd crowd she goes around with, long-haired youths and heavily painted girls. J: Just as I suspected! Why on earth do you let her mess about with them? M: That’s pretty natural. She’s no longer a child. She said she’d be meeting some friends on the beach at nine o’clock. J: Then there is nothing to worry about. M: You are too permissive. That’s what is wrong with you, if you ask me. J: it’s not fair – you are holding me responsible for all the family problems. You are just looking for a scapegoat! Couldn’t you phone someone just to put your mind at rest? M: If I start phoning about she’ll call me a worrier. J: Oh, my God! All I can say is that things are very much out of control 2.8 Ответьте на вопросы. Пользуйтесь следующими фразами, выражая свое мнение. I believe/ It seems to me/ To my mind/ I think/ I guess 1. Do you think that friction between young people and their parents is inevitable? Why? 2. What are the most common reasons for conflict and friction? 3. What subjects and topics do you agree on? What subjects and topics do you disagree on? 4. What will you do to cut down on friction when you become a parent? 5. How would you like your parents to behave toward you? 6. What things do you like about the way you were brought up? 7. What things would you do differently with your children? Why? 2.9 Передайте диалоги в косвенной речи, используя слова данные ниже. Asked, explained, wondered, wanted to know, insisted, allowed, replied, suggested, accused. 185 2.10 Прочтите текст FAMILY MATTERS – TWO POINTS OF VIEW ON A FAMILY RELATIONSHIP. Обсудите следующие вопросы с партнером. • Who do you look more like, your mother or your father? • Who are you more like in character, your mother or your father? • Do you want to bring up your children in the same way you were brought up? 2.11 В статье одного из журналов два представителя одной и той же семьи рассказывают о своих отношениях друг с другом. работайте в группах. Группа A. Прочтите, что Оливер Дэроу говорит о своей дочери, Кармен. Группа Б. Прочтите, что Кармен говорит о своем отце. FAMILY MATTERS – TWO POINTS OF VIEW ON A FAMILY RELATIONSHIP Oliver Darrow, actor, talks about his daughter, Carmen My first wife and I only had one child. It might have been nice to have more. I would have liked a son, but we just had Carmen. I see her as my best friend. I think she always comes to me first if she has a problem. We have the same sense of humour and share many interests, except that she's crazy about animals, obsessed with them - she has always had dogs, cats, and horses in her life. We were closest when she was about four, which I think is a wonderful age for a child. That's when they need their parents most. But as soon as Carmen went to school, she seemed to grow up and grow apart from her family, and any father finds it difficult with a teenage daughter. She was very moody and had an odd group of friends. There was an endless stream of strange young men coming to our house. I remember I once got annoyed with her in front of her friends and she didn't talk to me for days. I've always wanted the best for her. We sent her to a good school, but she wasn't happy there. She left because she wanted to become an actress, so with my connections I got her into drama school, but she didn't like that either. She worked for a while doing small roles in films, but she must have found it boring because she gave it up, though she never really 186 said why. She got married a few years ago, her husband's a vet. They must be happy because they work together, and she loves animals. We have the same tastes in books and music. When she was younger I used to take her to the opera - that's my passion - but she can’t have liked it very much because she hasn't come with me for years. I don't think she goes to the cinema or watches TV much. She might watch my films, but I don't know. It's not the kind of thing she talks to me about. I'm very pleased to have Carmen. She's a good daughter, but I think she likes my new wife very much because she doesn't visit us very often. I'm looking forward to being a grandfather one day. I hope she'll have a son. Carmen Darrow, veterinary assistant, talks about her father, Oliver. I really know my father. He isn't easy to get on with. I've always found him difficult to talk to. He's a bit reserved, but he loves to be recognized and asked for his autograph. I think people see his films and think he's very easygoing, but he really isn’t. He's won some awards for his films, and he's really proud of them. He used to show them to my friends when they came to the house and that really embarrassed me. He can’t have been home much when I was a small child because I don't remember much about him. His work always came first, and he was often away from home making films. I wasn't surprised when he and my mother split up. He must have wanted the best for me, but the best was always what he wanted. He chose my school and I hated it. I had no friends there, I was miserable and didn't do well, so I was asked to leave. He must have been very disappointed, but he said nothing to me. He wanted me to be an actor like him but I'm not at all like him. I tried it for a while, but I was miserable until I met my husband. He's a vet and I'm his assistant. Now I'm doing what I always wanted to do, working with animals. My father and I have always been so different. I love animals and he loves books and music, and above all opera, which I hate. If he comes to see us (we live on a farm), he always wears totally the wrong clothes, but we still don't see much of each other. It’s because he didn't really want me to marry George. He wanted me to marry a famous film star or something, but of course I didn’t. George and I don't want children, we have our animals, but my father would love to have a grandson. Maybe his new wife will give him the son he wants, but probably not. She cares too much about being slim and beautiful. I occasionally see one of his films on TV. I find it hard to believe he's my father. He is like a stranger. 187 Слова для запоминания Moody – унылый, угрюмый; Odd – странный, эксцентричный; Vet - ветеринар; To embarrass – смущать, приводить в замешательство; To split up – распадаться; Miserable – жалкий, убогий 2.12 В группах обсудите ответы на следующие вопросы. 1 Which two sentences best describe their relationship? a It was closer when Carmen was a child, b They get on well and have similar interests. c They don't have much in common. 2 Which two sentences best describe Oliver? a He's done a lot for his daughter, b He isn't very sensitive to how she feels. c He's more interested in himself than his family. 3 Which two sentences best describe Carmen? a She is selfish and spoilt, b She tried to please her father, c She was never really happy until she married George. 2.13 Ответьте на вопросы. 1. How did Oliver behave in front of Carmen's friends? 2. Why did she leave school? 3. Is she happily married? How do you know? 4. What does Carmen think of her father's career? 5. Why don't they see each other very much? 2.14 Пользуясь модальными глаголами в скобках в настоящем или прошедшем времени, перепишите первую часть предложения. Дополните предложения по-своему. 1 I'm sure Carmen likes animals a lot because …. (must). She must like animals because she enjoys working with them. 2 I don't think Oliver is a very famous actor because … (can’t). 3 I think maybe he has won an Oscar because ... (might). 4 I'm sure she had a lot of friends when she was a teenager because … (must) 5 I don't think she worked hard at school because ... (can’t) 188 2.15 Дайте совет Оливеру и Кармен. 2.16 Перескажите текст от лица Оливера и Кармен. 2.17 Проведите исследование в своей группе. • Find out who has got any brothers or sisters? • Who has got the most? How many? • Do they like having lots of brothers and sisters? • Has anyone got a twin brother and sister? Do they like being a twin? • Is anyone in the class an only child? Do they like being an only child? 2.18 Прослушайте, что два человека говорят о своих семьях. заполните таблицу. Louisa Rose How many brothers and sisters has she got? Was she happy as a child Is she happy now? Why/why not? What do you learn about other members of her family? 2.19 Догадайтесь о значении следующих слов, принадлежащих Луизе. A nun, hand-me-down clothes, keep in touch 2.20 Прослушайте запись еще раз и заполните пропуски. Louisa’s elder sister is … years old. When Louisa was a young girl her eldest sisters and brothers were … and … . Louisa eldest sister Julia is a … and worked in … for twenty-three years. She and Louisa are … friends. When they were young they had old bikes, old clothes but they had lots of … . Louisa’s granddaughter has … . Rosa is an … . She was … when she was a teenager. Her father … 10 years ago. She is … for her mother. She is married and has … children. 189 Обсудите в группе. How many children would you like to have? What size is the perfect family? Would you like to have twins? Лексика по теме to get married majority Outside to survive couple Approximately to value wage (syn. salary) Inevitable retire divorce to get on with smbd. rate to split up partnership to get annoyed license to embarrass generation gap Friction passion UNIT 3 TEENAGERS AND SOCIETY 3.1 Обсудите в группе. • Do you know anyone who has left home? • Why did they leave? • Did they go back home eventually? • This is an extract from a journal kept by the mother of a 17-year- old girl who left home 3.2 Прочтите текст DIARY OF A WALKOUT. Догадайтесь о значении следующих слов. walkout (here) person who leaves home after a fight get ears pierced have holes put in ears for earrings boarding house a place that rents out cheap 190