Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фонетический практикум
В практикуме указываются причины появления русского акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на английском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упражнения по его устранению. Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и тренировке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению интонационных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении и спонтанном говорении. Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспирантов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить английское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изучении английского языка.
31 to them / we know what it is / I asked if I could / the middle of it / a quarter of them / I gave it to her / it’s necessary / a party-member / we had to do it / the railway station / Exercise 9. De — da — de — da. I think it is / he thought he could / I thought it was / she tied it up / a piece of string / he had to go / it’s very good / it’s hard to say / but hurry up / she took it off / they put them on / another day / they mustn’t know / he locked the door / it’s much too big / to introduce / a waste of time / they’ve gone away / it’s all for you / he wants to learn / I’d love to help / a glass of wine / across the road / it’s not for sale / Exercise 10. De — da — de — de — da. I wanted to know / I think that he might / I’ll finish it now / a spoonful of salt / she asked me to go / I thought he had gone / we wanted to see / a walk in the park / a plateful of soup / he told me he would / the best in the class / I’ll see to it now / it’s warmer indoors / he left it outside / it used to be mine / a hole in your sock / he borrowed a pound / he can’t pay it back / she’s gone to the shops / I’ve finished my lunch / an excellent meal / in spite of the rain / the house is for sale / it isn’t allowed / you promised to write / she wasn’t gone long / he’d on his way back / it’s started to rain / he drank it all up / the engine won’t start / I’m sorry I came / I’m glad you have come / Exercise 11. Da — de — de — de — da. Finishing today / doing it alone / carry it away / put it on the floor / dirty underneath / clean it with a brush / tell me all you know / follow my advice / mind how you behave / try to do it now / half of them have left / get in touch at once / send them out to play / just in time to see / up above the clouds / sitting all alone / waiting for the train / hoping that he’ll come / ask him what he wants / have another cake / have a cigarette / what about a drink / bring along your friend / come and have a meal / how is uncle George? / why has no- one come?/ hang it up to dry / let me take your hat / put it on the shelf / don’t be such a fool / 32 Exercise 12. De — da — de — de — de — da. I think it will be fine / I wanted you to know / to finish with it now / a bucketful of ice / there isn’t any need / you ought to go to bed / the hospital was bombed / he waited half an hour / you only have to try / I never have a cold / it doesn’t make much sense/ the middle of the road / impossible to say / I didn’t know the way / the bottom of the glass / I’ll show it to her then / we promise to be good / I’ll try to be in time / it’s difficult to learn / he doesn’t go to school / I’ve heard of it before / he’s eaten all the cream / you’re wanted on the phone / I’ll see him in a week / I haven’t any ink / she isn’t on the phone / the children are in bed / Exercise 13. De — da — de — da — de. I think he wants to / I want to meet him / I like it better / another spoonful / I think he ought to / they want another / he’s playing football / you mustn’t leave her / he left on Monday / she has to practice / I’m not offended / perhaps they didn’t / without your hat on / I couldn’t help it / he never noticed / you need a haircut / it doesn’t matter / I’ll have to leave you / we’ll have a party / it’s time for supper / a great occasion / he hasn’t got one / I don’t believe you / we leave tomorrow / an awful nuisance / she wrote a letter / another sandwich / suppose he saw me / a clap of thunder / a piece of chocolate / Exercise 14. De — da — de — de — da — de — de. He started to talk to me / I think that he wants us to / she wanted to write to him / they’ve practiced it perfectly / I’ll borrow another one / you’ll get it on Saturday / they’ve all gone on holiday / it’s very unfortunate / it’s not the right attitude / I asked for it specially / a letter from Germany / I don’t want to frighten her / it’s not what I asked you for / it wants a new battery / they’ve bought a new wireless set / she’s sewing the buttons on / some carrots and cabbages / let’s open the other one /repeat it again for me / the soup isn’t hot enough / Exercise 15. De — da — de — de — de — da — de — de — de. I wanted you to write about it / it’s not the one I borrowed from you / it’s interesting to read about it / she doesn’t want to talk about him / remember what your teacher tells you / you won’t forget to 33 thank him for it / I took it to a watch-repairer / the doctor didn’t see the patient / she bought some new pajamas for him / this isn’t quite the moment for it / perhaps you didn’t realize it / I’d like it with some soda-water / you’ll need a rather bigger saucepan / I think he did it beautifully / to satisfy the school inspector / a teaspoonful of salad dressing / Exercise 16. Da — de — de — de — de — da. Show him up to his room / throw it into the fire / walking along the road / ready to go away / standing behind the door / why did you run away?/ tell him not to be late / sew it on to my coat / ask they where they have been / show me what you have done / sing me another song / what’s the name of the book?/ multi ply it by three / opposite the hotel / suffering from a cold / fill it up to the top / finish it if you can / Exercise 17. De — da — de — da — de — da. I think he wants to go / it’s not the one I want / it isn’t quite the same / I can’t believe it’s true / the train is very late / he hasn’t got a chance / I’m sorry I forgot / there isn’t time to change / a letter in the post / I hope you understand / on Friday afternoon / they played a game of bridge / the concert starts at eight / he goes to work on foot / he travels home by train / I’m sure my husband knows / she has to stay in bed / the fire is nearly out / it’s time to light the fire / I’d like a piece of bread / excuse my being late / I did not know the way / the roads are very dark / I couldn’t see the house / I’ll see them both at once / Exercise 18. De — da — de — de — da — de — de — da. I think that he wants us to go / it isn’t the same as before / I didn’t expect to be asked / we shan’t be in time for the play / I’ve written the letter in French / she’s gone for a walk in the park / I’ve taken my coat to be cleaned / the office is open at nine / this shop doesn’t sell what I want / I’m looking for paper and string /this envelope hasn’t a stamp / we don’t want to trouble you now / another affair for the police / she’ll never remember a thing /she’s sure to forget what to do / perhaps you can ring her tonight /and tell her to leave it alone / I wanted to meet him again / he practices once in a while / a spoonful of apricot jam / 34 Exercise 19. De— da— de— de— de— da— de— de— de— da. I think it was an excellent affair / I wonder if he’ll ask me in advance / we haven’t got an envelope to match / the office-boy will show you where to go / the factory is working day and night / the light should be in quite another place / there isn’t really quite enough for two / I didn’t want to put him off again / I don’t suppose you’ll understand my point / the bus is more convenient than the tram / we’ll switch it on as soon as we’ve had tea / I’d like a lump of sugar in my tea / I shouldn’t be surprised if they forgot / approximately ten of you can come / the others must wait here a little while / we’ll fetch you in a car in half an hour / he wanted me to listen to his song / we finished it the day before he came / a basketful of apples from the shop / Exercise 20. De — da — de — da — de — da — de. I think he wants to go there / we ought to give an answer / he’s never very punctual / she married Mary’s brother / I want a pound of sugar / I’d like to have another / she’s cleaned the kitchen windows / my husband wants his dinner / we had to go on business / I’ve got to do some shopping / you ought to buy a wireless / I’ll show you where to put it / you mustn’t waste a moment / you’re looking smart this morning / in case you are late for dinner / with no-one there to help her / it’s time we went to dinner / a dance tomorrow evening / with peas and baked potatoes / I didn’t want to listen / he doesn’t speak much English / he studies every evening / he always does his home work / Exercise 21. De— da— de— de— da— de— de— da— de— de. I think that he wants us to take him there / I told him to wait in the corridor / now what I have done with my handkerchief / remem- ber to get me another one / it’s cheaper to go to the cinema / I wonder if David has heard of it / the ambulance took him to hospital / apply for a post as a lecturer / he played us a tune on the gramophone/ he looked for a stick to defend himself /I ought to have sent her a Christmas card / whenever you can you must visit us / September is best for a holiday / you must have it ready for Saturday / we’ve hundreds of places to take you to / I wanted to finish my library book / a terrible cold in the head again / the other boys wouldn’t agree with him / she promised to carry it carefully / 35 Exercise 22. Da — de — de — de — de — de — da. Buy her a pretty new dress / honey and strawberry jam / when are you going away?/ what have you done with the ink?/ working as hard as they can / coming back home in a bus / take it away to be cleaned / that can be seen at a glance / wearing a funny old hat / giving him a cigarette / why have they left you alone?/ where have you hidden the key?/ go to another hotel / nearly as far as the bridge / Exercise 23. De — da — de — da — de — da — de — da. I think he wants to go there too / you ought to know the way by now / he did his best to save the child / the snow has fallen thick and fast / I know you didn’t mean to hurt / that’s not the way to fold a coat / I told him not to go away / he has to go to work at eight / I always like a cup of tea / it’s time the children went to bed / they used to go to bed at six / a glass of beer is what I need / he left the room without a word / he used to play it very well / I saw her standing all alone / I can’t forget the things he said / they said they had to leave at once / you’ll have to do it all again / Exercise 24. De— da— de— de— da— de— de— da— de— de— da. He says that he wants us to take it away / you know that we ought to discuss it today / a woman has fallen and broken her leg / I never say «No» to a hot cup of tea / then turn to the right at the end of the street / I shouldn’t have thought he could get here in time / he tied up the parcel and took it away / the gramophone record has broken in two / it won’t be the first time I’ve gone without lunch / excuse my disturbing you when you are so tired / the tram-stop is just a bit farther along / you couldn’t have come at a more inconve- nient time / it’s not what I wanted to ask you about / the paper and ink have been put on your desk / I see he’s forgotten to leave his address / we haven’t got time to arrange for it now / an apple a day keeps the doctor away / the book you’ve just lent me is better than many I’ve read / I like to sit down with a good cigarette and a book / UNSTRESSED PRONOUNS Personal pronouns (we, you, him, it, etc.) and prop-words (one, ones, some, etc.) are normally without stress, even when they are at the end of a phrase. The next six exercises offer reading practice on this topic. 36 Students should endeavour to place no stress at all on the pronouns, allowing them to form a single sound-unit with the preceding stressed syllable. Examples: cut it/ help me/ tell her/ break it/ make one/ buy some/ not some/ invite them/ guard them/ watch her/ stop him. Exercise 1. Give me another one / I want her to show you round / she told him not to ask you again / I asked her to take them away / she’ll give you one next time you come / I asked her to buy me some this morning / I know she had one to give you / I saw him give you them / he invited us to go and see them / he caught one and gave me it / she asked him to find her a bigger one / I wanted him to give you a new one / give her one if she wants it / allow me to buy you some / Exercise 2. Put it on / take them off / lift them down / show him out / drink it up / switch it on / turn it off / wake them up / read it out / put it back / put it down / cover him up / take them away / look it through / use them up / Exercise 3. Think of it / go to him / wait for me / wait on her / look for him / look at them / walk with him / read to her / ask for him / dream of her / call for them / cut with it / talk to them / sit by me / laugh at them / wish for it / sleep on it / listen to me / argue with them / whisper to her / Exercise 4. Thinking of it / going to him / waiting for me / waiting on her / looking for him / looking at them / walking with him / heading for her / asking for him / dreaming of her / calling for them / cutting with it / talking to them / sitting by me / laughing at them / wishing for it / sleeping on it / listening to me / arguing with them / whispering to her / Exercise 5. Give it to me / take it from her / hide it from them / choose one for me / clean it for me / read it with me / break it for her / cut it for him / steal it from them / throw it to me / take it to him / tell it to me / eat some with me / buy them for them / sell it to me 37 / pin it on him / keep them for me / play it with me / show it to her / open it for me / study it with me / practise them with her / hold it for me / lay them under it / place it over him / interview her for me / Exercise 6. Let me see them / take them away from them / where did you see them?/ why didn’t you give it to him?/ go up to him and tell him about it / take them all away with you / fold them carefully and give them to him / let me look at you / I’ve told them I’ll look everywhere for him / take care of her for me, won’t you?/ I’ll look after them for you / what can I do for you?/ the assistant will wrap it up for you / put them in my car for me, please / read it to him / write it for them / spell it to me / tell me about it / show it to me / give it to him / my father bought me them / I bought them for him yesterday / they asked us about it / what did he tell you about us?/ he’ll sell me two of them / PLOSIVES AND RHYTHM Note. Smooth rhythms of the type de-da-da-de etc. are broken into the uneven rhythms of de-da:-d’-de etc. under the influence of certain combinations of plosives (p, b; t, d; k, g). When two or more plosives follow one another, only the last one is really «exploded» audi- bly, and the regular speech-flow is held back to allow the preceding plosives to be formed. This princi ple can be more easily understood by comparing words like Friday and mid-day. The first «d» of midday is not sounded, but the voice pauses slightly for it before uttering the sound «d». A similar slight pause, with the suppression of the plosive, is often heard when a plosive precedes a nasal (m, n), an affricate (ch, dj) and sound combinations (tr, dr), or a fricative (f, v; th,*th; s, z; sh,*sz). With this last group the plosive is usually less completely suppressed. Read the following combinations, suppressing the plosive, but al- lowing time for its imaginary appearance. Exercise 1. Cheap book / ri pe corn / hope to / hoped to / dust bin / sick baby / Saint Paul’s / big dog / black dog / lamp-post / handbag / top branch / meat tin / jump down / Hampton /damp cloth / top girl / help me / stop now / drop by drop / ri pe cherries / top drawer 38 / card trick / steep track / drop down / Thompson / stamp these / a ri pe fig / grape vine / soap bubble / rub very hard / cob nut / rub down / ti p-top / don’t talk / white chalk / rub gently / globe trotter / webbed toes / rubbed / hot toast / sit down / wet ground / post-card / sweet fruit / let me help them / let go! / milk chocolate / a gold nib / that German / the right thing / put that down / a red cover / a red train / a good pudding / we had to / a bad dog / a good girl / a sand pit / a postman / a good brother / hard times / cold meat / a loud noise / good jam / a cold drink / an old friend / a good view / the Grand Theatre / a state theatre / I haven’t thanked you / a bad thing / now add them / eight pounds / in mid-stream / we made sure / look sharp!/ quick march / not now / a black pig / back to front / take care!/ a book-case / the back garden / he drank gin / he drank neat gin / we picked some flowers / a sick child / we like jam / a bookmark / a mock trial / to knock down / a locked door / a cake-dish / a dark valley / take this / take that book / take three / a dog-collar / a log cabin / an egg- cup / a big girl / a pigtail / fig jam / a fog signal / Exercise 2. Note. The presence of adjacent plosives in phrases is mainly perceived through the changed rhythm, caused by the pause made for the unexpected plosives. Stop eating / stop thinking / he stopped talking. A pet hen / a pet duck / a pecked duck. Lock up!/ lock doors!/ locked doors. A dry tea-cup / awhite tea-cup / awi ped tea-cup. To knock out / knocked out / knocked down. A hatter/ an actor/ act two. To ask us / he asked us / he asked twice. We hope it does / we hope to go / we hoped to go. A stamp album / stamp paper / stamped paper. Stop him!/ we stopped once / we stopped twice. Drop it!/ I dropped it / I dropped two. A docker / the shi p may dock today / she docked today. Tap once!/ he tapped again / he tapped twice. Kick him!/ kick Tom / he kicked Tom. Exercise 3. Note. The extra initial length is most clearly felt in the presence of suppressed plosives, but can also be caused by a long vowel or 39 di phthong, adjacent nasals and fricatives (or affricates),or even purely subjective influences. Talk to him / aptitude / practical / amplify / factual / (an) empty one / magnify / (it was) sent to him / envelope / (a) book to read / octopus / photograph/ wait a bit !/ show me one!/ that’s enough / educate / afterwards / (some) cake to eat / thank them, please!/ (he) picked them all / (it) must be true / (you) ought to know. Exercise 4. Chapter ′one / Doctor ′Brown / up-to-′date / let me ′help / it’s a ′shame / (he) stepped a ′side / (he) asked the ′way / (he) stopped to ′ask / what’s the ′time?/ what’s it ′for?/ ask them ′now / after ′all / ginger ′beer / (it’s) up to ′you / (you) can’t come ′in / after′noon / eightpence ′each / up the ′street / take them ′all / put them ′down / (it) must be ′true / (you) ought to ′know. REGULARITY OF STRESS Note. The examples given earlier of sentences containing many stressed words and others containing only few stressed words show that the apparent speed of utterance is largely dictated by the number of stressed syllables. The fewer the stresses, the more rapidly the voice ski ps over the intervening unstressed syllables. If we read any piece of prose at random so that we have a fair sample of mixed stressing, we find that the overall effect of this is to create the impression that stressed syllables occur at fairly regular intervals. When two or three come close together, the speed of utterance is noticeably slower; when they are separated by several unstressed syllables, these syllables flow along more rapidly. The stressed syllables themselves move along at a much more regular speed. The following exercise has a gradually in- creasing number of unstressed syllables between the stresses. As their number increases, it may be necessary to slow down the speed of the stresses slightly, but care should be taken to read each new group at least three times in a steady and deliberate rhythm that is based on the stressed syllables. To facilitate reading, these stress-peaks will be printed in bold type. You came to see him. You should come in order to meet him. You should have come before it got so late. We bought a book. We have bought another book. We could have bought you another book. We ought to have bought ourselves another book. 40 It was good to speak to him about it. It would be better if you spoke to him about it. It would have been better if you had spoken to him about it. He asked me to give him a ticket. He should ask if we could give him a ticket. He should ask us if we could give him another ticket. He ought to have ask us if we could have given him a few of the tickets. He cut the bread with a sharp knife. He cut the loaf of bread with a sharp knife. He cut the loaf of bread with a badly sharpened knife. Tell her to put it down. Tell the girl to put the book down. Tell the girl to put it down. Tell the girl to put the book on the table. Tell the other girl to put the book on the table. Tell the other girl to put all the books on the table. S E C T I O N II NURSERY RHYMES AND LIMERICKS Children’s verses, nursery rhymes, countings are the simplest forms of rhythmical exercises. Read the following nursery rhymes. Tap the rhythm at each stressed syllable regularly. Hearts like doors will open with ease To very, very little keys; And don’t forget that two are these: «We thank you all» and «if you please». The cock is crowing, The stream is flowing, The small birds twitter, The lake does glitter, The green field sleeps in the sun. Work while you work, boys. Play while you play. That is the way, boys To be happy and gay.