Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фонетический практикум
В практикуме указываются причины появления русского акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на английском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упражнения по его устранению. Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и тренировке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению интонационных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении и спонтанном говорении. Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспирантов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить английское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изучении английского языка.
21 The eight di phthongs are usually grouped into three types, de- pending on the tongue movement involved. The first group ends with a glide towards the [!] vowel in the centre of the mouth,and are called centring di phthongs. They are heard in the words «here», «air» and «sure». The remainder end with a glide towards a higher position in the mouth, and are called closing di ph- thongs. One type of closing di phthong moves in the direction of a [i] quality at the front of the vowel area. These sounds are heard in the words «they», «cry» and «toy». The other type of closing di phthong moves in the direction of [u] qaulity at the back of the vowel area (and thus adds some li p rounding). These sounds are heard in the words «so» and «how». S E C T I O N II (American notation) VOWEL SOUNDS 1. The long a. a) The day May plays, Ray remains and finds ways to stay, weighing his crayfish daily. b) Is it crazy to say the raisins on the gray tray stay today? 2. The short a (aah). a) Can the tan man carry sand as fast as rabbits ran? b) Land is grand but Sam demands amnesty. 3. The broad a (aw). a) I thought not, but ought to have sought Maud’s awful daughter’s awesome thoughts. 4. The forward ah. a) Father was blah. Aloha to Ma. b) Modern moms are not Tod’s toddling sobs. 5. The long e. a) Queenie sees he greets a leech. b) See the green trees lean in between Lee’s feet. 22 6. The short i (ih). a) Mitch’s fiddle wilted in his kilt. b) Milk fills Lil’s little window sill with dill. 7. The short e (eh). a) Yet, meadows meant the wench’s kettle was left. b) Get ready to set the record, Ted. 8. The long o. a) Oh no, the toad’s load of gold is sold. b) Toes showed as Joe’s nose glowed. 9. The short o (ah). a) He drops mops from the mountaintops. b) Bob shopped for corncobs. 10. The long oo. a) In truth, vermouth soothes my tooth. b) Soon the loons are oozing soup. 11. The short u (uh). a) Lug, tug and shrug off the bugs. b) Cousin’s mustard must muddle in mundane mugs. 12. The very short u (ooh). a) Look at good books in Sugarnook. b) Should footballs be put in the woods? We would if we could. CONSONANT SOUNDS /b/ 1. Blanche’s bonny baby buggy had big black rubber bumpers. 2. Bobby bought Betty a beautiful bouquet of blossoming blos- soms. 3. Butch, the burglar, bore a black beret and a blue bludgeon. 4. Bright brass and ebony bassoons bedecked the blackened band- stand. /ch/ and hard-c [k] 5. Her chum chose to choke the chicken and chop the chives. 6. The church choir chose a Christian charity. 7. A cunning chi pper chi pmunk chattered while itching his chin creatively. 23 8. Mitchell chilled as Charley pitched curves, crying «Come chide the churlish crowd!» /d/ 9. Daddy dutifully ducked the dreadful dirk tossed by the addled Adelaide. 10. Don’t demonstrate sadness in delightfully droll and dramatic comedies. 11. Deirdre danced the di psy doodle during the thousand dollar dance-a-thon. 12. The widow padded down the ladder before paddling in the drainage ditch. /f/ 13. Our friend graphed the laughs, as his foe fell flatly on his face. 14. Freddie felt that the African safary would be a fairly fashion- able, but fearful affair. 15. Molly’s folly fully fell on the staff’s feelings for freedom. 16. The flying calf with the rough cough was fairly fast and fantastically fleet of foot as he frequently flopped. /g/ 17. Gracie was a good gal as she gleefully clogged in the green garden. 18. The guy in the green glade gamboled groggily and gamely against the gravelly ground. 19. Gluttonous Greg gambled that the gray gumbo was guaran- teed against gaseous groveling. 20. The gracious graybeard gleefully ignored the girl’s grin. /h/ 21. Hal hoped the haggard hobo had half-heartedly helped her. 22. How happily Harriet held her hamburger! 23. The humongous humanoid hardly heard his hollering for help. 24. The hugely abhorrent hummock heaved horridly high on the hill. /j/ and /dg/ 25. Jittery Jill jerked away from the edge of the ledge where her jump rope was lodged. 26. June judged grudgingly that the jetty was justifiable. 27. Jolly Judy hedged her joy judiciously as she jumped the sedge. 28. Judge Budge adjudicated against Madge’s badge. 24 29. Jade’s jello salad nudged Jim from his jungle gym. /l/ 30. Loose li ps lose lovers with lies. 31. «Lavender and lace look lovely», Lucy laughed. 32. Let’s lose those lazy lumberjacks. 33. Lily lolled lazily as the miller milled her millet in the languishing light. 34. Silly little Billie laughed delightedly at the lovely yellow lark. 35. Willie worked willingly to establish his claim to a million zillion dollars. 36. The hill Lama’s llama, when fully wooly, always lost its pelt. /m/ 37. The immature miserable midget claimed to know many mar- velous, melodic, rhythmic hymns. 38. Many a man is inestimably moronic when he moans, mut- ters, meanders, and mumbles about a madonna-like woman. 39. Magic, mambos, and mumbo-jumbo made Millie immensely manic amidst Mannie’s military menage. 40. Mundane, unimaginative employers may miss the moment to employ amiable multi-talented immigrants. /n/ 41. Incredibly talented Fanny innocently planned never to plunk a clinker. 42. «Innuendo», nattered Netty, «can do a number on any- body!» 43. Norman’s intricate imagination never unnerved Nathan’s nosy neighbor. 44. Normally insensitive nomads indicated ninety-nine nearby native towns as inhospitable. /ng/ 45. An English singer sang long, lilting, but maddening songs. 46. The stunningly winged angel was strumming and humming a song dreamingly. 47. No songbird, the Kingfisher was flying long and strongly over the fishing Englebert. 48. Many fanged mutts mingled as they mangled and tangled hungrily. 25 /p/ 49. Phoebe Pappadopolis apathetically picked at the peck of pickled peppers as she antici pated the apocalypse. 50. Papa Paul, appointed to apportion the papers, appreciated pretty appliques. 51. Petty Patty’s apparel apparently appealed to apple polishers. 52. Patently, a prowling predator preferred people to pansies. /r/ 53. Rarely rapid, the river roamed restlessly. 54. The brown bear, warily retreating, growled her threat as she reacted rapidly to the rare encroachment on her lair. 55. The darling deer ran daringly through the forest fire. 56. Rabbits and giraffes rarely roar, but bears roar repeatedly. /s/ 57. Sassy Suzy spoke several sibilants uneasily. 58. Since September, the snow has passed us by. 59. The steak sizzled on the spit, as Sam spoke sharply to Sue. 60. Sarsaparillaseems insi pid to strangers steeped in Scotch. /sh (ch)/ 61. Cashews should never be hashed, mashed, or washed. 62. Sharon shook with shock, as the shark sheared shatteringly near Susan. 63. Charlene’s shellacked chateau shone through the shimmer- ing, shining, sunlit snow. 64. Short, shrewd, shrewish, showy Charmaine shrieked at the shrinking shellfish. /t/ 65. Tatiana told terrible tales about the Tsar. 66. Theresa’s titian tresses tangled in the trellis, as she tried to transcend her transgressions. 67. Tommy Teeter talked with a taut Texan twang. 68. Tweedledee and Tweededum tittered at the turtle that was trying desperately to turn right side up. /th/ (unvoiced) 69. Sheherasade might have thought of a thousand and three things. 70. Thad thought thimbles and threads were thrilling to throngs. 26 71. Think of monstrous mythical scythes. 72. Theodore wrathfully thwarted Thad’s path. 73. The transonic jet threw open the throttle, gathered thrust and, thundering through to Thebes, made a three-point landing. /th/ (voiced) 74. Whether the weathermen gathered them, wreaths are rather feathery. 75. Lathered leather sometimes rather made the man ill. 76. Feathers are rather rare in the heather. /v/ 77. The Venetian vagrant was served veal on the varander. 78. The venerable vagabond veered and swerved through the verdant valley. 79. A vile, evil vampire eviscerated the virgin. 80. The very valuable vase was covered with verdigris. /w/ 81. Eloise and Aloysius were worried about the walrus in the water. 82. One wouldn’t want worse weather! 83. Wanda wandered to the wishing well where she wistfully wished for wealth. 84. Walter wondered whether Woody was just wooly-headed or wonderfully woozy with wine. /y/ 85. Yuri yelped and yapped when he saw the yellow yak on his yacht. 86. William yielded the yogurt to the young yogi. 87. The youthful millionaire was used to yokels yearning for money. 88. An angry yegg abused the useless xylophone played by Xavier. /z (s)/ 89.The zaftig Zenobiazi pped crazily across the miserable zoo. 90. Byzz, a zestful but zany zealot, caused the zither to dither. 91. The jazz made the muzzled Zebra crazy, so he zi pped off through the zinnias. 92. The fuzzy bees buzzed busily as Zachary searched for bee trees. 27 /zh (sh)/ 93. Midas took no measure of pleasure in his treasure. 94. Leisure is usually indicated after a seizure. 95. Jacque’s hat was beige. 96. A surgeon’s decision about an incision is critical. 97. Many see visions with precision in an azure sky. U N I T IV SECTION I ENGLISH RHYTHM This is what English phoneticians say about rhythm: «It occa- sionally happens that a foreign student acquires faultless pronunciation and even correct intonation, and one wonders what it is that betrays his non-English origin. It is, in these circumstances, his faulty rhythm»1. «Rhythm and intonation; two features of pronunciation upon which intelligibility largely rest. The surest way to become unin- telligible in a language is to distort its natural rhythm»2. In the light of the above quotations the importance of studying English rhythm systematically and thoroughly is obvious. Many En- glish authors of books on teaching English recommend teaching rhythm before teaching intonation. They think, too, that rhythm is best taught through verse, where because of the requirements of the metre, rhythm is very regular. Rhythm is a regular recurrence of some phenomenon in time, e.g. the rhythm of the tides, the rhythm of the seasons, the rhythm of the bodily functions, etc. Speech rhythm is inseparable from the syllabic structure of the language. There are two main kinds of speech rhythm. As far as it is known, every language in the world is spoken with one kind of _________________ B.Lumsden Milne. English Speech Rhythm in Theory and Practice. 1 London, 1957. P. 4. 2 Linguaphone Conversational Course, English. Tartu, 1963. P. 7. 3 Abercrombie D. Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh, 1967. 28 rhythm or with the other. In the one kind, known as a syllable-timed rhythm, the syllables recur at equal intervals of time — they are isochronous. In the other kind, known as a stress-timed rhythm, stressed syllables are isochronous. English, Russian, Arabic illustrate this other mode: they are stress-timed languages 3. From the point of view of rhythm, a sense-group in English is divided into rhythmical groups, like bars in music. There are as many rhythmical groups in a sense-group as there are stressed syllables. A minimal rhythmical group consists of nothing but a stressed syllable. Most rhythmical groups consist of a stressed syllable and one or more unstressed ones. In ordinary speech the number of unstressed syllables between each consecutive pair of stresses varies considerably. In verse, where a definite regularity in the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables is required by the metre, rhythm can be observed very easily. The basic rules of English rhythm that an adult learner may find useful are as follows: 1. The stressed syllables in a sense-group follow each other at regular intervals of time; only in very long rhythmic groups, contain- ing many unstressed syllables, this regularity is not strictly observed. 2. Most non-initial rhythmic groups begin with a stressed syl- lable; unstressed syllables occurring inside a sense-group have a ten- dency to cling to the preceding stressed syllable, forming its enclitics; only initial unstressed syllables always cling to the following stressed syllable, forming its proclitics 1. 3. The greater the number of unstressed syllables intervening between stressed ones, the more rapidly they are pronounced. 4. Each sense-group has a rhythm of its own, depending on the degree of semantic importance attached to it in comparison with the other sense-groups of the utterance. Listen and read the exercises. Don’t forget to divide the sentences into rhythmic groups. Tap the rhythm. Exercise 1. The following word-combinations in English usually have a full stress on each word: adjective-noun, adverb-adjective, ad- verb-verb. Brown dog / sharp pen / round table / very hard / quite pleasant / nearly finished / almost everything / fairly quick / half __________ 1 Gimson A. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. Lon- don, 1966.; J.D. O’Connor. Better English Pronunciation. Cambridge, 1977. 29 dressed / well-done / carefully prepared / very peculiar / several languages / female company / Exercise 2. With several significant words occur together, care must be taken to give them full stresses. The stressed syllables in this exercise should be spaced in a regular rhythm. A book / a good book / a very good book / a very good text-book / a very good school text-book / The day / the whole day / nearly the whole day / very nearly the whole day / very nearly the whole day long / A lorry / a heavy lorry / a heavy lorry with a load / a heavy lorry with a load of wood / a heavy lorry with a full load of wood / a heavy lorry with a full load of two tons of wood. A clock / my friend’s clock / the hands of my friend’s clock / the metal hands of my friend’s clock / the two broken metal hands of my friend’s clock / Shoes / a pair of shoes / a dirty pair of shoes / a dirty pair of brown shoes / a dirty pair of brown leather shoes / two very dirty pairs of brown leather shoes / Exercise 3. Da— da (da — stressed syllable de — unstressed syllable). Come here / look out / what for? / where to? / inside / on top / no more / speak up / sit down / downstairs / say «yes» / try hard / wash up / break down / ask John / go slow / where from? / which one?/ hold tight / in time / no use / please do / no thanks / yes, please / no good / all right / run fast / work hard / who’s that?/ not quite / quite right / that’s true / just then / half way / armchair / write soon / read this / Exercise 4. Da— de— da. Try again / not enough / look inside / show me yours / do it now / not so fast / lend a hand / cut the bread / make the tea / run away / go to sleep / have a drink / drive a car / break it up / what is that / what’s it for / practise hard / sing a song / write it down / draw a line / that’s a lie / take it home / have a go / having lunch / who’re you?/ where’s he from?/ hurry up / move along / light the fire / fast asleep / cold as ice / change your shoes / where’s your hat?/ time 30 for bed / here’s some tea / lemonade / half an hour / long ago / can’t be done / quite unknown / just in front / ring me up / ill in bed / Exercise 5. De— da— de. I think so / I thought so / I’d like to / to please them / a hand- full / a pity / of course not / I’d love to / he couldn’t / as well as / for ever / they may be / to try it / at breakfast / the paper / she had to / it’s early / she’s ready / with pleasure / I’m sorry / just listen / but why not?/ I’ve read it / a lot of / without me / in daytime / a nuisance / the answer / I’d rather / it’s broken / Exercise 6. De — da — de — de. I think it is / I’d like you to / to practise it / a bucketful / it’s possible / we oughtn’t to / he wanted it / he wants us to / they knew it was / a little one / a lot of it / they’ve finished it / he thinks he can / I thought it was / I’ve heard of it / it used to be / get rid of it / we asked them to / he lent me one / he’s used to it / let’s give her some / be nice to her / a friend of mine / it’s beautiful / she came with us / because od it / we spoke to them / I studied it / there isn’t one / I’ve paid for it / Exercise 7. Da — de — de — da. Writing it now / send him away / reading aloud / terribly slow / give him a book / what is the time?/ sing us a song / running away / top of the class / hardly enough / are you awake?/ throw it away / send me a card / give me a ring / playing a game / meet me tonight / where have they gone?/ where have you been?/ what have you done?/ what is it for?/ show me the way / gone for a walk / come for a swim / killed in the war / give him some food / nearly as good / beautiful girl / handsome young man / cutting the grass / chopping some wood / leave it alone / not before tea / ready for lunch / when you have time / not before then / wait till I come / falling asleep / what can you see?/ just for a while / what did you do?/ get into bed / leave it behind / do it again / write it in ink / quarter past nine / quarter to ten / see you tonight / out of the way / carefully read / switch off the light / Exercise 8. De — da — de — de — de. I’ve eaten them all / a beautiful one / I think it will be / to satisfy them / I thought it had been / interrogate them / he wanted us to / in spite of it all / a long time ago / an exercise book / I’ve written