Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фонетический практикум
В практикуме указываются причины появления русского акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на английском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упражнения по его устранению. Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и тренировке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению интонационных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении и спонтанном говорении. Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспирантов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить английское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изучении английского языка.
11 h) Think before you speak. Then you won’t. i) Blind dates are better than no dates at all. j) Do it now! Today will be yesterday tomorrow. k) Soft heads do more harm than soft muscles. l) When it’s dark enough, you can see the stars. m) The Arctic expresses the sum of all wisdom: silence. n) Those who want the fewest things are nearest the gods. o) Death tugs at my ears and says: «Live, I’m coming». p) Let your speech be better than silence, or be silent. q) When you are deeply absorbed in what you are doing, time gives itself to you like a warm and willing lover. UNIT III SPEECH SOUNDS Read the following dialogue. Try to guess the meaning of the phrases. Is it easy? Spare your listeners and avoid speaking this way. Whajasay? Joe and Ed are from Zap, North Dakota. One of them is a fisherman. Can you translate? Joe. Hiyed. Ed. Lojo. Whatimezit? Joe. Boutaquar nine. Ed. Whajasay? Joe. Quarnine. Howzt gon? Ed. Nasaha. Joe. Whatsamatta? Ed. Jescopla bites. Joe. Gonexra beer? Ed. Godaball. Beefearjin. Wanna snor? Joe. Nah, godago. Ed. Wazzarush? Joe. Gotpointment adenis. Se yamorrow. Ed. Tekedezy. Joe. Gluk! 12 Joe and Ed are afflicted with a tiresome and commonplace ver- bal disease: sloppy, indistinct, garbled, and mushy speech. It’s re- ferred to as poor articulation. Remember that good articulation requires precision, but a preci- sion that isn’t excessive. Natural articulation avoids either of two ex- tremes: sloppiness and artificiality. It’s simply speech that is as clear and sharp-edged as it is apparently easy and unforced. It doesn’t dis- tract the listener. Always bear in mind that you speak most often in phrases and sentences and not in disconnected words. Your language tends to flow along smoothly. It’s fluid and supple. Words seemingly melt or blend into one another. Many Broadway actors warm up before going on stage with: «Twixt Trent and Tweed.Gig-whi p.Gig-whip.Gig-whip». Simple? Try it. SECTION I (British notation) ENGLISH VOWELS IN PHRASES Practice the reading of the following sentences. Pay attention to the phonetic phenomena: assimilation, adaptation, and liason. Exercise 1. Vowel 1 [i:]. 1. There are three green trees in the street. 2. A cool breeze began to blow from the east. 3. In the green fields wheat is grown. 4. Teach me how to heat the tea. 5. Each week we had a new teacher. 6. It’s easier to speak than to read. 7. I feel it my duty to speak to his teachers. Exercise 2. Vowel 2 [I]. 1. The riddle is simple. 2. This is an interesting system. 3. The house is situated on the top of the hill. 4. Chicago is a big city in Illinois. 5. I’m itching from sitting in poison ivy. 6. The building is situated near a big cliff. 7. Jim seems ignorant of even the simplest facts of English history. 13 Exercise 3. Vowel 3 [e]. 1. Let’s test the set. 2. Ben’s pen is better than Ned’s. 3. Let me tell them the legend. 4. The scent of fresh hay was heavy in the air. 5. He was a slender, well-dressed man. 6. He’s telling me he isn’t ready yet. 7. Ed couldn’t mend it very well. Exercise 4. Vowel 4 [+]. 1. Harry plans to be back on Saturday. 2. It wasn’t as bad as that. 3. Ann sat clapping her hands. 4. The fact is, he was acting. 5. Happiness can get to be a habit. 6. Is that the man who attacked you? 7. Hasn’t Allen given you his racket? Exercise 5. Vowel 5 [a:]. 1. This part is rather large. 2. At last the car started. 3. They started at half past five sharp. 4. Sighing «ahh» can be calming. 5. Is your farm far from town? — No, not by car. 6. Hasn’t Father asked Martin to mow the grass? 7. I think I’d rather ask my aunt. Exercise 6. Vowel 6 [o]. 1. Osborn is a Doctor of Astronomy. 2. The costume cost a lot. 3. This is the very spot where Tom lost his watch. 4. Ron’s got a cough, so Don will do the shopping. 5. I’ve got to solve a very knotty problem. 6. This cloth wants washing. 7. He had a lot of bother getting to his office because of the thick fog. Exercise 7. Vowel 7 [o:]. 1. The pause is rather short. 2. Paul Born is the author of the story. 3. We saw a shawl lying in the hallway. 4. Your daughters are all tall. 14 5. I adore her more and more. 6. I caught a cold when I walked along the shore. 7. That tall girl’s my daughter. Exercise 8. Vowel 8 [u]. 1. Would you like to look at this new book? 2. Could I cook the food myself? 3. Who took the cook book? — I think June took it. 4. By hook or by crook. 5. Would you like another lump of sugar? 6. Put this book back in the bookcase. 7. You’d better put on your woollen pull-over. Exercise 9. Vowel 9 [u:]. 1. Soon the moon will be full. 2. There are two new students in the group. 3. The two girls looked beautiful in their new blue shoes. 4. I knew you’d choose Juliet. 5. She knew who started the rumour. 6. We made it a rule never to swim in the pool at noon. 7. He jumped in the pool like a fool. Exercise 10. Vowel 10 [ ]. 1. They publish a number of articles every month. 2. The subject is under discussion. 3. Something must be done at once to help them. 4. He comes from a southern country. 5. Have you any money?-Yes, I have some, but not very much. 6. She was as snug as a bug in a rug. 7. Don’t touch this money till next month. Exercise 11. Vowel 11 [з:]. 1. They learn German at the University. 2. Their purpose is to observe the surface of the earth. 3. Learn thirteen words from Lesson Thirty. 4. We searched a long time for Pearl’s purse. 5. Which work d’you want her to finish first? 6. They’ll be serving lunch earlier on Thursday. 7. She was learning about the curvature of the Earth. Exercise 12. Vowel 12 [!]. 1. Hasn’t Baxter given Redford the papers? 15 2. Mr Robertson asked to be remembered to you. 3. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. 4. She had left her umbrella at the baker’s. 5. Don’t you think it’s rather warm today. 6. You must admit it wasn’t very successful. 7. I wish we could get them all to agree. ENGLISH CONSONANTS IN PHRASES Practice the reading of the consonants. If you want clean and neat [p] and [b] sounds, be sure that your li ps make solid contact with each other as you shape the plosives. Don’t forget — these two sounds should be crisp, but they are not nuclear blasts. Remember: if a word ends in a plosive and the next word begins with one you should hold the final consonant of the first word and release it into the first consonant of the next. But don’t get lazy and turn the adjacent sound into mush. Rob Peter hot dog slammed doors bake caramel Exercise 1. Consonant 1 [p]. 1. There’s plenty of time to paint the picture. 2.Pat put the purse in his hi p pocket. 3. At seeing Pola Pete dropped the parcel on the porch. 4. His personality didn’t especially appeal to Pam. 5. As a typist Pearl’s perfectly hopeless. Exercise 2. Consonant 2 [b]. 1. I think you’d better ask Barbara. 2. Everybody knew that you were waiting for Bobby. 3. I don’t want you to buy me a bike. 4. Barnett asked to be remembered to you. 5. That isn’t the best way to bathe a baby. Exercise 3. Consonant 3 [t]. 1. Don’t wait any longer for Ted, he’ll meet you at two thirty. 2. Why not ask Tom — he won’t mind telling you. 3. Tom was in time, and so was Tim. 4. Terry went there at once, but it was too late. 5. She asked me to stay, but I couldn’t spare the time. 16 Exercise 4. Consonant 4 [d]. 1. Dennis won’t do it any better than you do. 2. How many students have you invited to dinner? 3. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 4. Dan dislikes drills even though they do him good. 5. I don’t think Doris will do that. Exercise 5. Consonant 5 [k]. 1. Kate asked me not to come. 2. I can’t understand what the kids are talking about. 3. Don’t you think he’ll like the comedy? 4. I’ve asked your cousin to come to tea. 5. I think you’d better ask the cook. Exercise 6. Consonant 6 [g]. 1. It was Gloria who gave the game away. 2. Garth will never gamble again. 3. I’m going to Glasgow again. 4. How long ago did you give it to Glen? 5. Why don’t you go and get it glued? Exercise 7. Consonant 7 [t ]. 1. Cheney’s such a nice chap. 2. Which of the chaps did you choose? 3. Isn’t Charles going to take the children to Chamsford? 4. The church clock chimed midnight. 5.Charles eats chiefly fish and chi ps. Exercise 8. Consonant 8 [d ]. 1. John told them not to jabber. 2. Hasn’t John given Jack the journal? 3. James worked on a large fruit-growing estate in Jamaica. 4. I’m much obliged to you, Mr Gerald. 5. George and Julia don’t like books on geography. Exercise 9. Consonant [f]. 1. We’d better have coffee before we go to see the falls. 2. He’s a good physician who cures himself. 3. She doesn’t care a fig for Forshaw as you’ll find out. 4. I hope you didn’t find my pamphlet too boring. 5. A heavy February frost followed the unusually fair weather. 17 Exercise 10. Consonant [v]. 1. We all voted in favour of a longer vacation. 2. Everybody knew that Victor was waiting for Vera. 3. We don’t expect to leave till this evening. 4. Eve knows Vickie very well. 5. I used to be very fond of veal. Exercise 11. Consonant [_]. 1. I don’t think they’ll be very thick. 2. The cathedral is worth going to. 3. They’ve asked Mr Thiselton to tell the truth. 4. Thornton thinks you’d better ask the author. 5. Thelma thinks of nothing but theatre. Exercise 12. Consonant [ ]. 1. Swithin wants them to take the others. 2. They can’t go there dressed like that. 3. Though their father knew everything he behaved as though he knew nothing. 4. They’ll take the others when they go there. 5. I think the thing is theirs. Exercise 13. Consonant [s]. 1. Last night Simon decided not to stay there. 2. Sondra’s the last person to want to spoil it. 3. This isn’t the best way to say it. 4. It’ll be ready on Saturday so far as I can see. 5. Sadler said he’d wait for us at the station. Exercise 14. Consonant [z]. 1. The bees buzzed busily around the flowers. 2. Briggs does like roses. 3. The cause of the disaster was not easy to discover. 4. Hasn’t your cousin received any letters? 5. Symonds’ll take the others when he comes on Wednesday. Exercise 15. Consonant [ ]. 1. She is sure to know Irish. 2. The shirt costs a shilling. 3. The shelves of the shops were full of dishes. 4. Could you show me the shortest way to the station? 5. I should like to see some cotton shirts, please. 18 Exercise 16. Consonant [ ]. 1. The explosion completely wrecked the garage. 2. Those occasional excursions were extremely pleasurable. 3. It gave the illusion of a casual decision. 4. The art of visual evasion is called camouflage. 5. The explosion occurred after the collision Exercise 17. Consonant [h]. 1. He should have hated to have stayed here any longer. 2. Hasn’t Harry given Henry a hint? 3. Helen hated to meet him here. 4. Herbert said he’d wait for her at home. 5. They were happy, but hungry, after the rehearsal. Exercise 18. Consonant [m]. 1. I’m sorry I made a mistake in the time. 2. Mike missed most of them. 3. The Romans certainly made mammoth columns. 4. Don’t tempt me with a room full of cameras. 5. It was a mistake to wear the metal mask. Exercise 19. Consonant [n]. 1. Nobody knew that Ned was waiting for Nell. 2. She began knitting the cap in November. 3. Nick told me not to knock. 4. The next night Nora decided not to go. 5. The price of peanuts is nearing a penny a pound. Exercise 20. Consonant [%]. 1. I’m always asking the wrong questions. 2. Bing has been imagining things. 3. We stopped jogging and started dancing. 4. I was hoping you didn’t find the song too boring. 5. Running and jumping conflict with eating and relaxing. Exercise 21. Consonant [l]. 1. She’s not likely to be lonely. 2. She never really looks very well. 3. I was glad to have a letter from Lucy. 4. There will likely be hail or sleet late tonight. 5. Fields of clover and alfalfa dotted the landscape. 19 Exercise 22. Consonant [j]. 1. Yes, you can have the yacht tonight. 2. Your suit is new. 3. She was as mute as a statue. 4. Your opinion is highly valued. 5. Juliet’s failure was no news to me. Exercise 23. Consonant [r]. 1. He needs much practice in reading and writing. 2. The carrier was on a rural route. 3. I roamed around the room looking for the rake. 4. The pirate told a terrific tale of raiding the port. 5. The purser threw the roll over the rail. Exercise 24. Consonant [w]. 1. It was the last waltz at the wedding. 2. I rewarded the dog with a sandwich. 3. Young men in the West frequently wear vests. 4. We walked through the seaweed in the backwash. 5. I was late for the quiz because I woke up at twelve. ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS IN PHRASES Exercise 1. Di phthong [eI]. 1. I’ll take the papers when I come a little later. 2. Is Jane going to leave by the eight twenty-eight? 3. Grace wants you to take the class today. 4. Payne said he’d wait for us at the station. 5. They’ll play the game later in the day. Exercise 2. Di phthong [aI]. 1. The island is nine miles long and five miles wide. 2. The climate’s pretty mild in Ireland. 3. Out of sight out of mind. 4. I was surprised that neither reply was right. 5. You must light a fire to warm the dining-room. Exercise 3. Di phthong [oI]. 1. Small boys like noise-making toys. 2. Most coins are made of alloys. 3. Joy cooked them in boiling oil. 4. You enjoyed eating the oysters, didn’t you? 20 5. Roy was annoyed with the boy because he’d spoiled his toy. Exercise 4. Diphthong [(u]. 1. Mr. Brown was not allowed to go out of the house. 2. Howell ploughed the ground around his house. 3. It took her about an hour to get to town. 4. Howell said that his brown cow had been found. 5. He fell down and got a bad cut over his eyebrow. Exercise 5. Di phthong [зu]. 1. No, I don’t think so — or rather I don’t know. 2. I hope you’re both going home. 3. No one knows where the old rogue obtained the loan. 4. When he comes home he throws open all the windows. 5. I don’t smoke so much as Joe does. Exercise 6. Diphthong [I!]. 1. He made it clear that his criticism would be severe. 2. I fear he’s far from being sincere. 3. It’s real cashmere, my dear. 4. The day was clear and the boys went to the pier. 5. Don’t sneer at his inexperience, dear. Exercise 7. Di phthong [ε!]. 1. I can’t tell you about Clare. I wasn’t there. 2. His angry glare didn’t scare them. 3. Give Clare a fair share of pear jam. 4. The unwary bear was caught in his lair. 5. This mare won a prize at the fair. Exercise 8. Diphthong [u!]. 1. I’m absolutely sure it’s pure wool. 2. She couldn’t endure seeing animals treated cruelly. 3. During February they made a tour of Europe. 4. This ladder’s quite secure, I’m sure. 5. Can you cure her of curiosity? It’s interesting to know From the point of view of length, the di phthongs are like long vowels; but the first part of a di phthong in English is much longer and louder than the second. When we listen to the di phthong in [hau] how, for example, most of the sound is taken up with the [a] part, the glide to [u] being quite short and rapid.