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Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фонетический практикум

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В практикуме указываются причины появления русского акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на английском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упражнения по его устранению. Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и тренировке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению интонационных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении и спонтанном говорении. Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспирантов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить английское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изучении английского языка.

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            МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРÀЗОВÀНИЯ
         РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРÀЦИИ
ВОЛГОГРÀДСКИЙ ГОСУДÀРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ




            L.G. FOMICHENKO




          SPEAKING CLEARLY.
IMPROVING VOICE AND ARTICULATION



          Фонетический практикум




               Волгоград 2002


ББК 81.432.1-1я73
     Ф76



                             Рецензенты:
                 д-р филол. наук, проф. В.И. Карасик;
                канд. филол. наук, проф. К.С. Махмурян

                     Рекомендовано к печати
           редакционно-издательским советом университета


      Фомиченко Л.Г.
Ф76        Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фоне-
      тический практикум. — Волгоград: Издательство Волгоград-
      ского государственного университета, 2002. — 112 с.
           ISBN 5-85534-541-6
            В практикуме указываются причины появления русского
      акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на анг-
      лийском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упраж-
      нения по его устранению.
            Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и трени-
      ровке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению инто-
      национных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении
      и спонтанном говорении.
            Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гумани-
      тарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспиран-
      тов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить англий-
      ское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изу-
      чении английского языка.

ISBN 5-85534-541-6




                       © Л.Г. Фомиченко, 2002
                       © Издательство Волгоградского
                         государственного университета, 2002


I N T R O D U C T I O N _____________
      Drill material, even when it’s serious, is lively. And much of it
is fun. An anonymous genius once said: «There’s no fun in medicine,
but there’s lots of medicine in fun. Fun can help recharge our men-
tal, emotional, and physical batteries. Fun can lead to longevity»
(L.V. Mayer, p. xi).
      The book deals with lots of drill exercises but don’t forget that
they will not only help you to acquire good English (British or
American) accent but also will improve your voice and articulation.
Our course doesn’t concern itself so much with what you say, but how
you sound when you’re saying it. Do you know how much talking you
do? About thirty thousand words a day. But do the people you talk to
daily react favourably to your voice? Do they find your voice pleasant
and agreeable? Do they find you animated and interesting to listen to?
Have you ever thought about it? You should remember: how a person
says something rather than what the person says forms a lasting and
almost permanent impression. Your voice is the sharp cutting edge of
your personality. First impressions do count, because «you never get a
second chance at a first impression» (ibid., p. 2).
      So, the aim of this textbook is to help achieve a melodious voice
and clean-as-a-whistle articulation. Do you remember an aphorism
that «Beauty, it seems, isn’t necessarily in the eye of the beholder.
Much of it is in the ear of the listener» (ibid., p. 3).
      I’d like to remind you that speech is a learned skill therefore it’s
possible to improve your pronunciation and make it correct and
beautiful if you’re willing to work hard. The exercises in this textbook
will help you develop a voice that is more likable and appealing than
your present speaking voice. You may even discover a new you !
      But don’t forget that the most important thing is practice, prac-
tice and then more practice! And remember this: practicing isn’t
always exciting fun. Neither is dieting or bodybuilding. You won’t


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notice any results immediately, but if you disci pline yourself and
hang in there, you will eventually. Take your time! Be patient! Change
takes place slowly.
      Bear it in mind that a first-rate voice is distinct, intelligible,
and easy to understand. Articulation must be as sharp and incisive as a
laser beam. How important it is to sound intelligible can be illustrated
with the following situation:
      «A reporter specializing in small businesses called a real estate
broker.
      Receptionist:
      «Gummenendawanda».
      «Would you repeat that, please?»
      «Whoja wanna talkta?»
      «No one at your firm, thank you».
      Potential loss to firm — $ 5000 in commissions».

      Wrap-up
      1. Many authorities believe that the way we talk is actually far
more important than the way we look.
      2. Talking effectively is vital to success in life.
      3. People are seldom aware of their own vocal faults and are
almost never aware of how their voices sound to others.
      4. Practice is the single most important factor in voice and
articulation improvement. Poor pronunciation is the most common
speech fault.
      5. Much practice will help you get stage fright (public speaking)
under control.
      6. Maintaining good posture and eye contact and avoiding verbal
fungi (uh, you know, okay, etc.) have a positive effect on the way you
look and sound.

     Good luck!


PART I _____________________
      UNIT I
                    BREATHING TO SPEAK
     Breathing to sustain life is primary and automatic — we’re not
always conscious of breathing. Only secondarily do we breathe to
speak. In breathing for speech, we form intelligible vocal sounds (pho-
nation) during the process of exhalation. (Try to speak intelligibly
while inhaling and see what happens.) When we breathe to speak we
control the process of exhalation.
Exercises for Breath Control
     In breathing to speak an easy, natural, and flexible control of your
exhalation will help you achieve effective vocal production.
     I. Stand comfortably erect. Hands’re on hi ps. Shoulders’re back
         and straight.
         1. Breathe in ... out ... in ... out ... in ... out.
                                          …
         2. Breathe in ... with the sound /f/ out.
         3. Breathe in ... with the sounds /f/, /s/, /f/, /s/, /f/, /s/ ...…out.
         4. Breathe in ... with the sounds /f — s — sh (ш)/ ... …out.
         5. Breathe in ... with the sounds /f — s — sh —kh (х)/ …...out.
     II. 1. Breathe in ... with the sounds KPT (8 times) out.
         2. Breathe in ... with the sounds PTK (10 times) out.
         3. Breathe in ... with the sounds TPK (12 times) out.
     III. Breathe in ... out (pronouncing English and Russian proverbs
         and sayings several times while exhaling: 1) aloud, 2) to
         oneself, 3) in a whisper, 4) aloud).


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      To do this breathing exercise, choose 3 or 4 English or Russian
proverbs and sayings.
      1. Pick up a pin and put it up.
      2. Peter Pi per picked a pack of pickled peppers.
      3. A big black bug bit a big black bear.
         A big black bear bit a big black bug.
      4. Three grey geese in a green field grazing,
         Grey were the geese and green was the grazing.
      5. Moses supposes his toeses are roses, but
         Moses supposes erroneously. For nobody’s toeses
         Are poises of roses as Moses supposes his toeses to be.
      6. Whether the weather be fine or whether the weather be not,
         Whehter the weather be cold or whether the weather be hot,
         We’ll weather the weather whatever the weather whether
         we like it or not.
      7. She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore.
      8. Round and round the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.
      9. The sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
      10. Бык тупогуб, тупогубенький бычок, у быка бела губа
          была тупа.
      11. Купи кипу пик. Кипу пик купи. Пик кипу купи.
      12. У осы не усы, не усищи, а усики.
      13. Самовары — чайнички. На чайничках крышечки,
          На крышечках шишечки, на шишечках дырочки,
          В дырочках — па — а — а — а — ар.

       Limericks
       The popular sort of comic verse is called a limerick. It has five
lines, the first two with three stresses, the next two with two stresses, and
the last one again with three stresses. There are two unstressed syl-
lables between each pair of stresses.
       There was an Old Man of Hong Kong,
       Who never did anything wrong;


                                                                           7
      He lay on his back,
      With his head in a sack,
      That innocuous Old Man of Hong Kong.
      There was an Old Man who supposed
      That the street door was partially closed;
      But some very large rats
      Ate his coats and his hats,
      While that futile old gentleman dozed.
      There was a Young Lady of Niger,
      Who smiled as she rode on a tiger.
      They returned from the ride
      With the lady inside —
      And the smile on the face of the tiger.
      There was an Old Man of Peru,
      Who never knew what he should do;
      So he tore off his hair,
      And behaved like a bear,
      That intrinsic Old Man of Peru.
      There was an Old Man with a nose,
      Who said, «If you choose to suppose
      That my nose is too long,
      You are certainly wrong».
      That remarkable Man with a nose.
       IV. Read the following in one breath. Try it.
       A dog is smarter than some people. It wags its tail and not its
tongue. No matter which screw in the head is loose, it’s the tongue that
rattles. Everybody agrees that a loose tongue can lead to a few loose teeth.
       A bit of advice: Say nothing often. There’s much to be said for
not saying much. It’s better to remain silent and be thought a fool
than to open your mouth and remove all doubt. If you don’t say it,


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you won’t have to unsay it. You never have to take a dose of your own
medicine if you know when to keep your mouth shut.
      If you didn’t succeed, the following exercises will help you gain
control over your flow of breath.
      Take a deep breath and release it slowly, making the sound /s/.
Keep it even and regular, free of jerkiness and bumpiness. Try it with
the sound /f/.
      An interesting experiment: Hold a small, lighted candle about six
to eight inches in front of your mouth. Sustain /s/ and then try /f/.
Keep your exhalation regular and constant. The flame shouldn’t
flicker and certainly shouldn’t go out.

      UNIT II
                ARTICULATION EXERCISES
      If you have a tight, constricted throat with rigid walls your voice
may be strident, jarring, and rasping. Openness of throat and relaxation
of the walls and surfaces will promote a mellow, velvety, and molasses
— rich quality.
I. Exercises for the Opening of the Mouth
      1. a) Keep the mouth closed with the li ps pressed together.
         b) Drop the lower jaw as low as possible. The mouth should
            be wide open.
         c) Come back to the a-position.
      2. a) Keep the mouth closed with the li ps pressed together.
         b) Open the mouth as wide as one third of the opening.
         c) Open the mouth one third wider. The separation of the
            jaws is considerable.
         d) Shut the mouth.
      3. a) Open the mouth as wide as possible.
         b) Close the mouth gradually in three equal times.
II. Exercises for the Lips
      1. a) Keep your li ps pressed together.
         b) Now open the mouth.The li ps should be in their neutral
            position.


                                                                       9
      c) Come back to the (a)-position. Pronounce energetically
           /m-m-m-m/...…/p-p-p-p/...…/b-b-b-b/...…/f-f-f-f/...…/v-v-v-v/
         .../w-w-w-w/.
         …
    2. a) Press the li ps, then make them neutral.Now round them.
       b) Now slightly protrude the lips as for the Russian sound /у/.
       c) Take the position of the li ps pressed together.
III. Exercises for the Tongue
    1. a) Open the mouth.
       b) Put the ti p of the tongue against the lower teeth.
       c) Now press it against the upper teeth.
       d) Draw the ti p of the tongue backwards.
       e) Put the ti p of the tongue very close to the edge of the
          teeth and blow the air out.
       f) Put the ti p of the tongue between the teeth and breathe
          the air out of the mouth.
    2. a) Move the bulk of the tongue far back. Hold it in this
          position for ten seconds.
       b) Push the tongue forward.
       c) Move the tongue back and forward twenty times.
    3. a) The mouth is wide open.
       b) Now say /a/, with the ti p of the tongue pressed to the
           lower teeth.
       c) Then say /и/.The position of the ti p of the tongue is the
           same. The separation of the jaw is smaller.
IV. Exercises for the Soft Palate
    1. a) Open the mouth wide, keep the tongue as low as possible
          and say «Ah», as if the doctor wanted to examine your
          throat. Mind that the soft palate is raised closing the nasal
          cavity. The air stream goes through the mouth.
      b) Keeping the mouth in this position, breathe in and out
          through the mouth.
    2. a) The mouth is wide open.
       b) Now push the air through the nose. The soft palate is
          lowered and closes the mouth cavity. The air goes through
          the nose.
       c) Go on breathing in and out through the nose with your


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           mouth open.
     3. a) Breathe in and out through the nose with your li ps pressed.
        b) Pronounce the sound /m/, keeping the lips pressed together.
Relaxing Throat and Mouth
       Your throat and mouth passageways must be relatively open, se-
lectively relaxed, and free of unnecessary tension.
       Your li ps and the jaw, and your tongue must be agile and
flexible.
       1. «Freeze» or tense your throat and then swallow. Holding this
          extreme tension for a few seconds, say «ah».
       2. Say each italicized word with as much tension as possible. On
           the other words, be easy and open.
         a) Never eat the last cookie.
         b) Keep your eyes open and your mouth shut.
         c) Don’t go to sleep. Too many people die that way.
         d) Set a thief to catch a thief.
         e) Sometimes in the dark, you see what you want to see.
         f) If you believe everything you read, better not read.
     3. By the simple expediency of relaxing your jaw, you can rid
        your whole body of a lot of stress and tension. Keeping the
        feeling of ease and openness, say these words as though sighing.
           Who      now odd up          too
           How      moo oh       mush oat
           Awl      rue    sue call loll
           Coo      saw shawl lass sum
     4. Expa— a— a— a— and your vowels and di phthongs slightly
        as you read these with an open and relaxed throat. Concen-
        trate on producing cream — of — tomato soup sounds —
        smooth and rich.
       a) The day was like gold and sapphires.
       b) The river is a tide of moving waters.
       c) The lights were sown like flung stars.
       d) Come to us through the foilds of night.
       e) Darkness melted over the town like dew.
       f) Froth and foam trickled through the thawing mash.
       g) Love teaches even asses to dance.



    
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