Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фонетический практикум
В практикуме указываются причины появления русского акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на английском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упражнения по его устранению. Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и тренировке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению интонационных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении и спонтанном говорении. Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспирантов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить английское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изучении английского языка.
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРÀЗОВÀНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРÀЦИИ ВОЛГОГРÀДСКИЙ ГОСУДÀРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ L.G. FOMICHENKO SPEAKING CLEARLY. IMPROVING VOICE AND ARTICULATION Фонетический практикум Волгоград 2002 ББК 81.432.1-1я73 Ф76 Рецензенты: д-р филол. наук, проф. В.И. Карасик; канд. филол. наук, проф. К.С. Махмурян Рекомендовано к печати редакционно-издательским советом университета Фомиченко Л.Г. Ф76 Speaking clearly. Improving voice and articulation: Фоне- тический практикум. — Волгоград: Издательство Волгоград- ского государственного университета, 2002. — 112 с. ISBN 5-85534-541-6 В практикуме указываются причины появления русского акцента в речи русскоязычных студентов, говорящих на анг- лийском языке, и приводятся методические приемы и упраж- нения по его устранению. Упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению и трени- ровке английского произношения, ритма, закреплению инто- национных моделей в двух видах речевой деятельности: чтении и спонтанном говорении. Данный практикум предназначен для студентов гумани- тарных факультетов, факультетов прикладных наук, аспиран- тов, преподавателей, а также всех желающих улучшить англий- ское произношение и приобрести английский акцент при изу- чении английского языка. ISBN 5-85534-541-6 © Л.Г. Фомиченко, 2002 © Издательство Волгоградского государственного университета, 2002 I N T R O D U C T I O N _____________ Drill material, even when it’s serious, is lively. And much of it is fun. An anonymous genius once said: «There’s no fun in medicine, but there’s lots of medicine in fun. Fun can help recharge our men- tal, emotional, and physical batteries. Fun can lead to longevity» (L.V. Mayer, p. xi). The book deals with lots of drill exercises but don’t forget that they will not only help you to acquire good English (British or American) accent but also will improve your voice and articulation. Our course doesn’t concern itself so much with what you say, but how you sound when you’re saying it. Do you know how much talking you do? About thirty thousand words a day. But do the people you talk to daily react favourably to your voice? Do they find your voice pleasant and agreeable? Do they find you animated and interesting to listen to? Have you ever thought about it? You should remember: how a person says something rather than what the person says forms a lasting and almost permanent impression. Your voice is the sharp cutting edge of your personality. First impressions do count, because «you never get a second chance at a first impression» (ibid., p. 2). So, the aim of this textbook is to help achieve a melodious voice and clean-as-a-whistle articulation. Do you remember an aphorism that «Beauty, it seems, isn’t necessarily in the eye of the beholder. Much of it is in the ear of the listener» (ibid., p. 3). I’d like to remind you that speech is a learned skill therefore it’s possible to improve your pronunciation and make it correct and beautiful if you’re willing to work hard. The exercises in this textbook will help you develop a voice that is more likable and appealing than your present speaking voice. You may even discover a new you ! But don’t forget that the most important thing is practice, prac- tice and then more practice! And remember this: practicing isn’t always exciting fun. Neither is dieting or bodybuilding. You won’t 4 notice any results immediately, but if you disci pline yourself and hang in there, you will eventually. Take your time! Be patient! Change takes place slowly. Bear it in mind that a first-rate voice is distinct, intelligible, and easy to understand. Articulation must be as sharp and incisive as a laser beam. How important it is to sound intelligible can be illustrated with the following situation: «A reporter specializing in small businesses called a real estate broker. Receptionist: «Gummenendawanda». «Would you repeat that, please?» «Whoja wanna talkta?» «No one at your firm, thank you». Potential loss to firm — $ 5000 in commissions». Wrap-up 1. Many authorities believe that the way we talk is actually far more important than the way we look. 2. Talking effectively is vital to success in life. 3. People are seldom aware of their own vocal faults and are almost never aware of how their voices sound to others. 4. Practice is the single most important factor in voice and articulation improvement. Poor pronunciation is the most common speech fault. 5. Much practice will help you get stage fright (public speaking) under control. 6. Maintaining good posture and eye contact and avoiding verbal fungi (uh, you know, okay, etc.) have a positive effect on the way you look and sound. Good luck! PART I _____________________ UNIT I BREATHING TO SPEAK Breathing to sustain life is primary and automatic — we’re not always conscious of breathing. Only secondarily do we breathe to speak. In breathing for speech, we form intelligible vocal sounds (pho- nation) during the process of exhalation. (Try to speak intelligibly while inhaling and see what happens.) When we breathe to speak we control the process of exhalation. Exercises for Breath Control In breathing to speak an easy, natural, and flexible control of your exhalation will help you achieve effective vocal production. I. Stand comfortably erect. Hands’re on hi ps. Shoulders’re back and straight. 1. Breathe in ... out ... in ... out ... in ... out. … 2. Breathe in ... with the sound /f/ out. 3. Breathe in ... with the sounds /f/, /s/, /f/, /s/, /f/, /s/ ...…out. 4. Breathe in ... with the sounds /f — s — sh (ш)/ ... …out. 5. Breathe in ... with the sounds /f — s — sh —kh (х)/ …...out. II. 1. Breathe in ... with the sounds KPT (8 times) out. 2. Breathe in ... with the sounds PTK (10 times) out. 3. Breathe in ... with the sounds TPK (12 times) out. III. Breathe in ... out (pronouncing English and Russian proverbs and sayings several times while exhaling: 1) aloud, 2) to oneself, 3) in a whisper, 4) aloud). 6 To do this breathing exercise, choose 3 or 4 English or Russian proverbs and sayings. 1. Pick up a pin and put it up. 2. Peter Pi per picked a pack of pickled peppers. 3. A big black bug bit a big black bear. A big black bear bit a big black bug. 4. Three grey geese in a green field grazing, Grey were the geese and green was the grazing. 5. Moses supposes his toeses are roses, but Moses supposes erroneously. For nobody’s toeses Are poises of roses as Moses supposes his toeses to be. 6. Whether the weather be fine or whether the weather be not, Whehter the weather be cold or whether the weather be hot, We’ll weather the weather whatever the weather whether we like it or not. 7. She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore. 8. Round and round the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran. 9. The sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick. 10. Бык тупогуб, тупогубенький бычок, у быка бела губа была тупа. 11. Купи кипу пик. Кипу пик купи. Пик кипу купи. 12. У осы не усы, не усищи, а усики. 13. Самовары — чайнички. На чайничках крышечки, На крышечках шишечки, на шишечках дырочки, В дырочках — па — а — а — а — ар. Limericks The popular sort of comic verse is called a limerick. It has five lines, the first two with three stresses, the next two with two stresses, and the last one again with three stresses. There are two unstressed syl- lables between each pair of stresses. There was an Old Man of Hong Kong, Who never did anything wrong; 7 He lay on his back, With his head in a sack, That innocuous Old Man of Hong Kong. There was an Old Man who supposed That the street door was partially closed; But some very large rats Ate his coats and his hats, While that futile old gentleman dozed. There was a Young Lady of Niger, Who smiled as she rode on a tiger. They returned from the ride With the lady inside — And the smile on the face of the tiger. There was an Old Man of Peru, Who never knew what he should do; So he tore off his hair, And behaved like a bear, That intrinsic Old Man of Peru. There was an Old Man with a nose, Who said, «If you choose to suppose That my nose is too long, You are certainly wrong». That remarkable Man with a nose. IV. Read the following in one breath. Try it. A dog is smarter than some people. It wags its tail and not its tongue. No matter which screw in the head is loose, it’s the tongue that rattles. Everybody agrees that a loose tongue can lead to a few loose teeth. A bit of advice: Say nothing often. There’s much to be said for not saying much. It’s better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open your mouth and remove all doubt. If you don’t say it, 8 you won’t have to unsay it. You never have to take a dose of your own medicine if you know when to keep your mouth shut. If you didn’t succeed, the following exercises will help you gain control over your flow of breath. Take a deep breath and release it slowly, making the sound /s/. Keep it even and regular, free of jerkiness and bumpiness. Try it with the sound /f/. An interesting experiment: Hold a small, lighted candle about six to eight inches in front of your mouth. Sustain /s/ and then try /f/. Keep your exhalation regular and constant. The flame shouldn’t flicker and certainly shouldn’t go out. UNIT II ARTICULATION EXERCISES If you have a tight, constricted throat with rigid walls your voice may be strident, jarring, and rasping. Openness of throat and relaxation of the walls and surfaces will promote a mellow, velvety, and molasses — rich quality. I. Exercises for the Opening of the Mouth 1. a) Keep the mouth closed with the li ps pressed together. b) Drop the lower jaw as low as possible. The mouth should be wide open. c) Come back to the a-position. 2. a) Keep the mouth closed with the li ps pressed together. b) Open the mouth as wide as one third of the opening. c) Open the mouth one third wider. The separation of the jaws is considerable. d) Shut the mouth. 3. a) Open the mouth as wide as possible. b) Close the mouth gradually in three equal times. II. Exercises for the Lips 1. a) Keep your li ps pressed together. b) Now open the mouth.The li ps should be in their neutral position. 9 c) Come back to the (a)-position. Pronounce energetically /m-m-m-m/...…/p-p-p-p/...…/b-b-b-b/...…/f-f-f-f/...…/v-v-v-v/ .../w-w-w-w/. … 2. a) Press the li ps, then make them neutral.Now round them. b) Now slightly protrude the lips as for the Russian sound /у/. c) Take the position of the li ps pressed together. III. Exercises for the Tongue 1. a) Open the mouth. b) Put the ti p of the tongue against the lower teeth. c) Now press it against the upper teeth. d) Draw the ti p of the tongue backwards. e) Put the ti p of the tongue very close to the edge of the teeth and blow the air out. f) Put the ti p of the tongue between the teeth and breathe the air out of the mouth. 2. a) Move the bulk of the tongue far back. Hold it in this position for ten seconds. b) Push the tongue forward. c) Move the tongue back and forward twenty times. 3. a) The mouth is wide open. b) Now say /a/, with the ti p of the tongue pressed to the lower teeth. c) Then say /и/.The position of the ti p of the tongue is the same. The separation of the jaw is smaller. IV. Exercises for the Soft Palate 1. a) Open the mouth wide, keep the tongue as low as possible and say «Ah», as if the doctor wanted to examine your throat. Mind that the soft palate is raised closing the nasal cavity. The air stream goes through the mouth. b) Keeping the mouth in this position, breathe in and out through the mouth. 2. a) The mouth is wide open. b) Now push the air through the nose. The soft palate is lowered and closes the mouth cavity. The air goes through the nose. c) Go on breathing in and out through the nose with your 10 mouth open. 3. a) Breathe in and out through the nose with your li ps pressed. b) Pronounce the sound /m/, keeping the lips pressed together. Relaxing Throat and Mouth Your throat and mouth passageways must be relatively open, se- lectively relaxed, and free of unnecessary tension. Your li ps and the jaw, and your tongue must be agile and flexible. 1. «Freeze» or tense your throat and then swallow. Holding this extreme tension for a few seconds, say «ah». 2. Say each italicized word with as much tension as possible. On the other words, be easy and open. a) Never eat the last cookie. b) Keep your eyes open and your mouth shut. c) Don’t go to sleep. Too many people die that way. d) Set a thief to catch a thief. e) Sometimes in the dark, you see what you want to see. f) If you believe everything you read, better not read. 3. By the simple expediency of relaxing your jaw, you can rid your whole body of a lot of stress and tension. Keeping the feeling of ease and openness, say these words as though sighing. Who now odd up too How moo oh mush oat Awl rue sue call loll Coo saw shawl lass sum 4. Expa— a— a— a— and your vowels and di phthongs slightly as you read these with an open and relaxed throat. Concen- trate on producing cream — of — tomato soup sounds — smooth and rich. a) The day was like gold and sapphires. b) The river is a tide of moving waters. c) The lights were sown like flung stars. d) Come to us through the foilds of night. e) Darkness melted over the town like dew. f) Froth and foam trickled through the thawing mash. g) Love teaches even asses to dance.