Теория и практика перевода: Учебное пособие
Данная работа представляет собой курс лекций и практических заданий по теории и практике перевода с английского языка на русский. В работе охарактеризованы основные приемы перевода и рассмотрены конкретные примеры перевода текстов по различным направлениям науки и техники. Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального образования, по специальности "Информатика" с дополнительной квалификацией "Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации". Упражнения направлены на развитие умений и навыков перевода научно-популярной литературы. Пособие может быть рекомендовано студентам других специальностей, изучающих перевод.
In the introduction to this book I described hacking as a sport; and like most sports, it is both relatively pointless and filled with rules, written or otherwise, which have to be obeyed if there is to be any meaningfulness to it. Just as rugby football is not only about forcing a ball down one end of a field, so hacking is not just about using any means to secure access to a computer. On this basis, opening private correspondence to secure a password on a public access service like Prestel and then running around the system building up someone's bill is not what hackers call hacking. The critical element must be the use of skill in some shape or form. Hacking is not a new pursuit. It started in the early 1960s when the first "serious" time-share computers began to appear at university sites. Very early on, 'unofficial' areas of the memory started to appear, first as mere notice boards and scratch pads for private programming experiments, then, as locations for games.(Where, and how do you think the early Space Invaders, Lunar Landers and Adventure Games were created?) Perhaps tech-hacking—the mischievous manipulation of technology--goes back even further. One of the old favorites of US campus life was to rewire the control panels of elevators (lifts) in high-rise buildings, so that a request for the third floor resulted in the occupants being whizzed to the twenty-third. Towards the end of the 60s, when the first experimental networks arrived on the scene (particularly when the legendary ARPAnet--Advanced Research Projects Agency network-- opened up), the computer hackers skipped out of their own local computers, along the packet-switched high grade communications lines, and into the other machines on the net. But all these hackers were privileged individuals. They were at a university or research resource, and they were able to borrow terminals to work with. What has changed now, of course, is the wide availability of home computers and the modems to go with them, the growth of public-access networking of computers, and the enormous quantity and variety of computers that can be accessed. Hackers vary considerably in their native computer skills; a basic knowledge of how data is held on computers and can be transferred from one to another is essential. Determination, alertness, opportunism, the ability to analyze and synthesize the collection of relevant helpful data and luck--the pre-requisites of any intelligence officer--are all equally important. If you can write quick effective programs in either a high level language or machine code, well, it helps. Knowledge of on-line query procedures is helpful, and the ability to work in one or more popular mainframe and mini operating systems could put you in the big league. The materials and information you need to hack are all around you--only they are seldom marked as such. Remember that a large proportion of what is passed off as 'secret intelligence' is openly available, if only you know where to look and how to appreciate what you find. At one time or another, hacking will test everything you know about computers and communications. You will discover your abilities increase in fits and starts, and you must be prepared for long periods when nothing new appears to happen. 81 Popular films and TV series have built up a mythology of what hackers can do and with what degree of ease. My personal delight in such Dream Factory output is in compiling a list of all the mistakes in each episode. Anyone who has ever tried to move a graphics game from one micro to an almost-similar competitor will already know that the chances of getting a home micro to display the North Atlantic Strategic Situation as it would be viewed from the President's Command Post would be slim even if appropriate telephone numbers and passwords were available. Less immediately obvious is the fact that most home micros talk to the outside world through limited but convenient asynchronous protocols, effectively denying direct access to the mainframe products of the world's undisputed leading computer manufacturer, which favors synchronous protocols. And home micro displays are memory-mapped, not vector-traced... Nevertheless, it is astonishingly easy to get remarkable results. And thanks to the protocol transformation facilities of Pads in PSS networks (of which much more lately), you can get into large IBM devices.... The cheapest hacking kit I have ever used consisted of a ZX81, 16K RAM pack, a clever firmware accessory and an acoustic coupler. Total cost, just over 100. The ZX81's touch-membrane keyboard was one liability; another was the uncertainty of the various connectors. Much of the cleverness of the firmware was devoted to overcoming the native drawbacks of the ZX81's inner configuration--the fact that it didn't readily send and receive characters in the industry-standard ASCII code, and that the output port was designed more for instant access to the Z80's main logic rather than to use industry-standard serial port protocols and to rectify the limited screen display. Yet this kit was capable of adjusting to most bulletin boards; could get into most dial-up 300/300 asynchronous ports, re-configuring for word-length and parity if needed; could have accessed a PSS PAD and hence got into a huge range of computers not normally available to micro-owners; and, with another modem, could have got into view data services. You could print out pages on the ZX 'tin-foil' printer. The disadvantages of this kit were all in convenience, not in facilities. Chapter 3 describes the sort of kit most hackers use. It is even possible to hack with no equipment at all. All major banks now have a network of 'hole in the wall' cash machines—ATMs or Automatic Telling Machines, as they are officially known. Major building societies have their own network. These machines have had faults in software design, and the hackers who played around with them used no more equipment than their fingers and brains. More about this later. Though I have no intention of writing at length about hacking etiquette, it is worth one paragraph: lovers of fresh-air walks obey the Country Code; they close gates behind them, and avoid damage to crops and livestock. Something very similar ought to guide your rambles into other people's computers: don't manipulate files unless you are sure a back-up exists; don't crash operating systems; don't lock legitimate users out from access; watch who you give information to; if you really discover something confidential, keep it to yourself. Hackers should not be interested in fraud. Finally, just as any rambler who ventured past barbed wire and notices warning about the Official Secrets Acts would deserve whatever happened thereafter, there are a few hacking projects which should never be attempted. On the converse side, I and many hackers I know are convinced of one thing: we receive more than a little help from the system managers of the computers we attack. In the case of computers owned by universities and polys, there is little doubt that a number of them are viewed like academic libraries--strictly speaking they are for the student population, but if an outsider seriously thirsty for knowledge shows up, they aren't turned away. As for other computers, a number of s are almost sure we have been used as a cheap means to test a system's defenses...someone releases a phone number and low-level password to hackers (there are plenty of ways) and watches what happens over the next few weeks while the computer files themselves are empty of sensitive data. Then, when the results have been noted, the phone numbers and passwords are changed, the security improved etc etc....much easier on dp budgets than employing programmers at Ј150/man/ day or more. Certainly the Pentagon has been known to form 'Tiger Units' of US Army computer specialists to pin-point weaknesses in systems security. Two spectacular hacks of recent years have captured the public imagination: the first, the Great Prince Philip Prestel Hack, is described in detail in chapter 8, which deals with view data. The second was spectacular because it was carried out on live national television. It occurred on October 2nd 1983 during a follow-up to the BBC's successful Computer Literacy series. It's worth reporting here, because it neatly illustrates the essence of hacking as a sport...skill with systems, careful research, maximum impact with minimum real harm, and humour. The TV presenter, John Coll, was trying to show off the Telecom Gold electronic mail service. Coll had hitherto never liked long passwords and, in the context of the tight timing and pressures of live TV, a two letter password seemed a good idea at the time. On Telecom Gold, it is only the password that is truly confidential; system and account numbers, as well as phone numbers to log on to the system, are easily obtainable. The BBC's account number, extensively publicized, was OWL001, the owl being the 'logo' for the TV series as well as the BBC computer. The hacker, who appeared on a subsequent programs as a 'former hacker' and who talked about his activities in general, but did not openly acknowledge his responsibility for the BBC act, managed to seize control of Coll's mailbox and superimpose a message of his own: Computer Security Error. Illegal access. I hope your television PROGRAMME runs as smoothly as my PROGRAM worked out your passwords! Nothing is secure! /41/ 1.2.5 Текст “Cloning” Clone, an organism, or group of organisms, derived from another organism by an asexual (nonsexual) reproductive process. The word clone has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited 83 characteristics—that is, in their genes —except for any differences caused by mutation. Identical twins, for example, who originate from the division of a single fertilized egg, are members of a clone; whereas nonidentical twins, derived from two separate fertilized eggs, are not clones. Besides the organisms known as prokaryotes (the bacteria and cyan bacteria), a number of other simple organisms, such as most protozoans, many other algae, and some yeasts, also reproduce primarily by cloning, as do certain higher organisms like the dandelion or aspen tree. Through recent advances in genetic engineering, scientists can isolate an individual gene (or group of genes) from one organism and grow it in another organism belonging to a different species. The species chosen as a recipient is usually one that can reproduce asexually, such as a bacterium or yeast. Thus it is able to produce a clone of organisms, or cells, that all contain the same foreign gene or genes. Because bacteria, yeasts, and other cultured cells multiply rapidly, these methods make possible the production of many copies of a particular gene. The copies can then be isolated and used for study (for example, to investigate the chemical nature and structure of the gene) or for medical and commercial purposes (for example, to make large quantities of a useful gene product such as insulin, interferon, and growth hormone). This technique is called cloning because it uses clones of organisms or cells. It has great economic and medical potential and is the subject of active research. Identical-twin animals may be produced by cloning as well. An embryo in the early stage of development is removed from the uterus and split, and then each separate part is placed in a surrogate uterus. Mammals such as mice and sheep have been produced by this method, which is generally called embryo splitting. Another development has been the discovery that a whole nucleus, containing an entire set of chromosomes, can be taken from a cell and injected into a fertilized egg whose own nucleus has been removed. The division of the egg brings about the division of the nucleus, and the descendant nuclei can, in turn, be injected into eggs. After several such transfers, the nuclei may be capable of directing the development of the eggs into complete new organisms genetically identical to the organism from which the original nucleus was taken. This cloning technique is in theory capable of producing large numbers of genetically identical individuals. Experiments using this technique have been successfully carried out with frogs and mice. Continue article... Progress in cloning higher mammals beyond an early embryonic stage presents a much more formidable challenge. Genes in cells at the earliest stages of embryonic life carry the encoded knowledge that enables cells to develop into any part of the body. But skeptics theorized that once cells form into specific body components, they thereafter lose the capability to reconstruct the entire organism from the genetic contents of the nucleus. However, in July 1996, a team of Scottish scientists produced the first live birth of a healthy sheep cloned from an adult mammal. The team scraped skin cells from the udder of a donor sheep (sheep A) and these cells were temporarily starved of nutrients to halt cell development. An unfertilized egg was removed from a second sheep (sheep B) and its nuclear material was removed to eliminate genetic characteristics of the donor egg. A skin cell from sheep A (containing a nucleus with genetic material) was fused with the unfertilized egg from sheep B. The egg, now with a full complement of genes, began dividing and was placed into the uterus of a surrogate mother (sheep C). The embryo developed normally and was delivered safely. Named Dolly, this healthy sheep was introduced to the world with much fanfare in February 1997. While Dolly has most of the genetic characteristics of sheep A, she is not a true clone. Not all of an animal's genes are found in the cell's nucleus. There are a few dozen genes that reside in the mitochondria outside the nucleus in the cell's cytoplasm. In Dolly's case, some of these genes were supplied by the donor egg of sheep B. The creation of Dolly represents a unique advance for cloning technology, but it inevitably intensified the debate about subjecting humans to cloning. Rather than a prelude to human cloning, however, many scientists herald the achievement as the forerunner of a revolution in animal breeding that will allow the highest quality farm animals to be produced and will provide a cost-effective method of producing medicines for human use. Cloning may also be used to create genetically altered animals capable of providing major organs for surgical transplantation into human beings. 2.2.6 Текст “The Future of Global Communications: We have seen the Future and It is Wireless” It’s another work and you’re on the 7:05 train whisking you at 190 miles an hour into the big city. Your laptop displays the morning news, which is being beamed directly from the wire services. Suddenly, you hear a beep coming from your wrist pager. The verbal mode kicks in and you hear an electronically synthesized voice telling you to send the facts concerning this morning’s new business proposal. From your pocket you pull out your personal cellular telephone and say, “Call my boss.” Automatically, it dials his personal communicator. You tell him that the requested data will be immediately faxed. Then you plug your cellular phone into your lap computer, your boss is reading the facts. A few minutes later, another message from your boss beeps in, thanking you for the information and asking you to meet him downtown at the Express port. It was published more then ten years ago and sounded like a page out of the future? Maybe so, but what may sound like tomorrow’s technology is here today. Right now, we’re in the midst of a communication revolution. In addition, the revolution is wireless. The freedom that a wireless system of communication affords will have a limitless affect on every aspect of one’s life. The wires that tied people to one location ever since Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone have been cut by advanced technology. They are being replaced by high frequency radio technology and ultra-sophisticated phone switching devices. Combine that with custom designed 85 integrated circuits and you have marvels as if voice activated calling and voiced synthesized message capabilities. In the not-too-distant future, the phones in your office and home may be wire- free. Moreover, sometimes they are now. With sound quality, that rivals wired quality. However, wireless voice transmission is just the beginning. Technological advances are making it possible to transmit data as well. In fact, it will soon be as common to connect computers by ultra-high frequency, distortion-free radio transmitters as it is with wires that run through walls. Even portable computers, like the kind you take on trains, are now in constant contact to their database. When someone needs to access the mainframe, they simply plug their computer into their cellular phone. What’s more, the advent of digital technology will ensure error-free data transmission. Even more astounding, the effects of the wireless revolution will soon be global. Companies like Motorola had on the drawing board plans to launch 77 low Earth orbit satellites that essentially would allow anyone with a cellular phone to communicate with anyone else on EARTH simply by dialing their personal telephone number. And they did. One person, one number. A staggering achievement. Overall, it’s obvious that the future of personal communication has no wires attached. The freedom it has brought should allow for unheard-of opportunities for increased productivity and personal enrichment. And for those who feel that being in constant contact with the world around you is a little too much like 2001, remember this. You can always turn it off. 2.2.7 Текст “Careers” Twenty-five years ago, armed with a degree in accounting, I joined my current employer in an entry-level position. These past 25 years have been good to me. I've steadily risen in responsibility and title and currently manage a department of 45 people. But I'm thinking of leaving. After all these years with a large corporation, I'm wondering whether working for a smaller company might not provide greater rewards, both psychologically and financially. I have a few friends who left jobs with big companies to join smaller firms, in one case going from a company generating billions of dollars a year to a six-person startup company. He seems happy enough, but his only complaint is that he lacks the staff and resources he once enjoyed at his previous employer: Any thoughts on the rewards versus the risks of going from big to small? Find your niche You pose two different questions. The decision whether to stay where you are or to seek another job has more to do with your personal situation than deciding whether you'd be happier with a smaller company. I'II focus on the big-vs.-small question because if you do decide to leave your present situation, chances ate you'll be seeking employment with a smaller firm. Here's why. A recent report published by Dun & Bradstreet said that companies with fewer than 20 employees are expected to have created more than half of all new jobs last year. And companies with between 20 and 499 people will have spawned another third of new employment. Smaller companies will have generated approximately 2.5 million new jobs in 1995. At the same time, large corporations continue to downsize. Dun & Bradstreet estimates that big companies (with more than 500 employees) will create only slightly more than 1% of new jobs. What that means to you is that if you do leave your current position, the odds are very good you'll be talking to smaller companies. Your friend's complaint about lacking staff and resources is commonly heard from executives who've left a large corporation to join a smaller firm. Still, many people who've made that switch find themselves enjoying a renewed sense of hands- on involvement. They quickly learn to appreciate the lack of bureaucracy common in big companies. Because smaller companies mean smaller staffs, each employee is expected to contribute more. As a result, hours can be longer and demands greater. You've had 45 people pulling together to accomplish your department's goals. With a small company, you may find yourself doing the same work, but by yourself. And while adjusting to that solo responsibility, you might also find yourself being asked to lend a hand in the marketing of your smaller employer's products or services. Many men and women leaving big business to work for smaller companies report a feeling of satisfaction because of their direct involvement in the smaller company's future. Rather company than having to go through many layers of management to reach the ultimate decision maker, they find themselves in close proximity to the smaller firm's president, needing only to pop in when they need an immediate decision. There is the parallel satisfaction of feeling like an entrepreneur without having to take the ultimate risk of going into one's own business. The smaller company's success will rise and fall with the collective efforts of just a few people, including you. Chances are you'll be paid less by a smaller company. But while your base pay might not match what you enjoyed at the big corporation, small firms offer bonuses and stock options on performance. In many cases, a successful company will end up paying seasoned executives more ill the long run than previous large employers have paid. But, of course, if the smaller company doesn't prosper, neither will you. Smaller companies need experienced executives like you to keep up with the demands of their growth. Growth can be chaotic and rapid, creating the need to fill positions quickly just to keep pace. This means not advertising as often, instead filling positions through recommendations from others. Nowhere is the use of an effective professional network as important as when you seek a job with a small firm. When a small company lands a new contract, it's often reported in the newspapers or in a trade publication. This notice provides an opportunity for you to let the management of that company know that you're available. Anew contract often means a need expand the staff. My advice is to be open to every opportunity out there, whether it's a huge, multinational corporation with billions in sales or six people who've found a niche and are committed to filling it. /39/ 87 2.2.8 Текст “Programming by Example” (by Henry Lieberman) Henry Lieberman is a research scientist in the Media Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Mas. Avoiding the voodoo of conventional programming, users get personalized solutions to one-of-a kind application problems that can be used over and over again. When I first started to learn about programming, many more years ago than I care to think about, my idea of how it should work was that it should be like teaching someone how to perform a task. After all, isn’t the goal of programming to get the computer to learn and then actually perform some new behavior? And what better way to teach than by example? So I imagined what you would do would be to show the computer an example of what you wanted it to do, go through it step by step, and then have it try to apply what you had showed it in some new example. I guessed that you’d have to learn some special instructions that would tell it what would change from example to example and what would stay the same. But basically, I imagined it would work by remembering examples you showed it and replaying the remembered procedures. Imagine my shock when I found out how most computer programmers worked. There were these things called “programming languages” that didn’t have much to do with what you were actually working on. You had to write out all the instructions for the program in advance, without being able to see whet any of them did. How could you know whether they did what you wanted? If you didn’t get the syntax exactly right (and who could?) nothing would work. Even after you had the program, tried it out, and something went wrong, you couldn’t see what was going on in the program. How could you tell which part it was wrong? Wait a second, I this approach to programming couldn’t possibly work. I’m still trying to fix it. Over the years, a small but dedicated group of researchers came to feel the same way I did, ultimately developing a radically different approach to programming, called “programming by example” (PBE). It is sometimes also called “programming by demonstration”, because the user demonstrates examples of the desired behavior to the computer. A software agent records the interactions between the user and a conventional “direct manipulation” interface and writes a program corresponding to the users’ actions. The agent can then generalize the program so it works in other situations similar to, but not necessarily exactly the same as, the examples on which it was taught. This ability makes PBE like macros on steroids. Conventional macros are limited to playing back exactly the steps recorded, making them brittle, because if the slightest detail of the context changes, the macro ceases to work. Generalization is also PBE`s central problem, the solution of which should enable PBE to replace practically all conventional programming. Children might represent the first real commercial market for PBE systems. They are not spoiled by conventional ideas of programming; for them, usability and immediacy are paramount. That’s why it’s with children in mind that this special section explores two notable PBE systems recently brought to market to enthusiastic receptions from their initial users, many of whom are children. David Canfield Smith and Allen Cypher`s Stagecast Creator, which evolved from Apple Computers`s Cocoa and KidSim, brings rule-based PBE to a graphical grid world. And Ken Kahn’s Toon Talk, a programming system that is simultaneously a video game, uses a radically different programming model, as well as radically different user interface. Toon Talk solves the problem of generalizing examples in a simple, almost obvious way –by removing detail. The program is less specialized and therefore more applicable in a wider range of situations. We also analyze PBE`s user requirements, examples of functioning PBE systems, and directions for the future of PBE that hopefully all demonstrate the power and potential of this innovative technology. One way PBE departs from conventional software is how it applies new techniques from AI and machine learning. Incorporating these techniques represents a tremendous opportunity for PBE but incurs the risk that the system will make unwanted generalizations. We can’t convince people about PBE`s innate value unless we offer at least some good examples of how PBE is being used in specific application areas. For example, some researchers unite PBE and the Web – everybody’s favorite application area today. The Web is a great focus for PBE because of its accessibility to a wealth of knowledge, along with the pressing need foe helping users organize, retrieve, and browse it all. Recent developments in intelligent agents can help- but only if users are able to communicate their requirements to and control the behavior of their agents. PBE is ideal. PBE can also be used to automate many other common but mundane tasks that under conventional circumstances consume a frustratingly large fraction of programmers` and users` time. SO, you may ask, if PBE is so great, how come everybody isn’t using it? PBE represents a radical departure from what we now know as programming; it can’t help but take a while before it becomes widespread, despite the existence of many systems demonstrating its feasibility and value in improving applications in a variety of domains. The conservatism of the programming community is the biggest obstacle to widespread PBE use. Repenning and Perrone show how to make PBE more like human learning by using analogy-an important intuitive cognitive mechanism. We often explain new examples by way of analogy with things we already know, allowing us to transfer and reuse old knowledge. They show how we can use analogy mechanisms to edit PBE programs, as well as to create such programs from scratch. Finally, the researchers explore what at first might seem a crazy approach. We have the computer simulate the users’ visual system in interpreting images on the screen, rather than accessing the underlying data. Though it may seem inefficient, this approach neatly sidesteps one of PBE`s thorniest problems-coexistence with conventional applications. It enables what we call “visual generalization”, or generalizing applications on how things appear to users on the screen, as well as on the properties of the data. PBE is one of the few technologies with the potential for breaking down the Berlin Wall that has always separated programmers from users. It allows users to 89 exploit the procedural generality of programming while remaining in the familiar user interface. Users today are generally at the mercy of software providers delivering shrink-wrapped, one-size-fits-all, unmodifiable applications. With PBE, they could create personalized solutions to one-of-a-kind problems, modifying existing programs and creating new ones, without going through the arcane voodoo characterizing conventional programming. /36/ 2.2.9 Текст “Teachers and Technology: Easing the Way” (by Henry J. Becker) As technology professionals, parents, and community members, how can we help grade school teachers integrate technology into the classroom? Asking K-12 teachers to integrate networked computers into the classroom is the biggest challenge we have given them in the last 200 years. Stridently admonishing them to change in the media isn’t the way to help them make the transition. It is our responsibility to create the workplace conditions that enable, complement, and support teachers. Technology’s disruptiveness is not unique to education; it has caused all manner of stress in professionals from accountants to zoologists. But non-teaching professions have generally been interacting with technology for upwards of 20 years, first automating, and now infomating (the term represents uses of technology that go beyond the automation of paper-and-pencil practices and truly leverage computational capabilities) their activities. They have had time to amortize the pain of adjusting their work practices to take advantage of technological advances. It is only now that teachers are hitting the technology wall, which was avoidable in the 1980s and 1990s. In the 1980s, technology was segregated from the curriculum, and computer literacy courses were taught by “computer teachers”. In the 1990s, technology became supplemental to the curriculum. Textbook lesson plans had annotations at the bottom of the page instructing teachers to have children play, say, the simulation program called “Oregon trail” if time permitted. Well, there is never time in the school day for extra things! Thus, teachers avoided dealing with technology for another decade. But today we are asking teachers to integrate technology into the classroom. Schools are creating technology skills requirements for students, and standards bodies such as the National Council for the Teaching of Mathematics and the American Association for the Advancement of Science are identifying technologies that need to be incorporated into subject areas and activities (such as the use of computer-based probes to measure the quality of water in a local stream or lake). We can’t place the burden of change solely on the backs of teachers. We must try to identify and understand the conditions that enhance the use of computers in the classroom, and develop strategies to create those conditions in our schools. Towards that end, this column covers a broad range of topics, from examining technology teaching practices to describing school district policies that lead to effective use of technology, from analyzing teacher technology preparation programs to business strategies for delivering technology-based products to the classroom. Our